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'''Canberra''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|n|b|ər|ə|audio=En-au-Canberra-ACT.ogg}})<ref>{{cite book | title = Macquarie Dictionary | publisher=Macquarie Dictionary Publishers| year = 2013 | edition = 6 | isbn = 9781876429898 | at=Entry "Canberra" | place = Sydney }}</ref>
is the capital city of [[Australia]]. Founded following the [[Federation of Australia|federation of the colonies]] of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the [[List of cities in Australia by population|eighth-largest city overall]]. The city is located at the northern end of the [[Australian Capital Territory]]; {{convert|280|km|abbr=on}} south-west of [[Sydney]] and {{convert|660|km|abbr=on}} north-east of [[Melbourne]].
On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies of Australia was achieved. Section 125 of the new [[Constitution of Australia|Australian Constitution]] provided that land, situated in New South Wales and at least 100 miles (160 km) from [[Sydney]], would be ceded to the new [[Government of Australia|federal government]]. Following discussion and exploration of various areas within New South Wales, the ''[[Seat of Government Act 1908]]'' was passed in 1908 which specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region. The land was transferred to the Commonwealth by [[New South Wales]] in 1911 creating the [[Australian Capital Territory]], two years prior to the capital city being founded and formally named as Canberra in 1913.
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[[File:BruceStadium19032005.JPG|thumb|En rugby league kamp på [[Canberra Stadium]]|alt=]]
It is unusual among Australian cities, being an entirely [[Planned community|planned city]] outside of any state, similar to [[L'Enfant Plan|Washington, D.C.]] in the United States or [[Brasília]] in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects [[Walter Burley Griffin]] and [[Marion Mahony Griffin]] was selected and construction commenced in 1913.<ref>{{cite book|first1=Wendy|last1=Lewis|first2=Simon|last2=Balderstone|first3=John|last3=Bowan | title=Events That Shaped Australia | page=106 | publisher=New Holland | year=2006 | isbn=978-1-74110-492-9 | authorlink1=Wendy Lewis }}</ref> The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles, hexagons and triangles, and was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the [[garden city movement]] and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation.
[[Canberra Vikings]] repræsenterer byen i [[National Rugby Championship]] hvor de blev nummer 2 i 2015 og 2017.
As the seat of the [[government of Australia]], Canberra is home to many important institutions of the federal government, national monuments and museums. This includes [[Parliament House, Canberra|Parliament House]], the official residence of the monarch's representative the [[Governor-General]], the [[High Court of Australia|High Court]] and numerous government departments and agencies. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance such as the [[Australian War Memorial]], the [[Australian National University]], the [[Royal Australian Mint]], the [[Australian Institute of Sport]], the [[National Gallery of Australia|National Gallery]], the [[National Museum of Australia|National Museum]] and the [[National Library of Australia|National Library]]. The city is also home to many important institutions of the Australian Defence Force including the [[Royal Military College, Duntroon|Royal Military College Duntroon]] and the [[Australian Defence Force Academy]]. It also hosts the majority of foreign embassies in Australia as well as regional headquarters of many international organisations, not-for-profit groups, lobbying groups and professional associations.
Der er også hold, der konkurrerer i nationale ligaer i [[Commonwealth Bank Trophy|netbold]], [[Australian Hockey League|hockey]], [[Australian Ice Hockey League|ishockey]], [[Futures League|cricket]] og [[Australian Baseball League|baseball]].
Canberra does not have a local council or city government like other Australian cities. The [[Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly]] performs the roles of both a [[city council]] for the city and a territory government for the rest of the Australian Capital Territory.<ref name="govt" /> The vast majority of the population of the Territory reside in Canberra though and the city is therefore the primary focus of the ACT Government. However, the federal government maintains authority over the Territory and may overturn local laws. It still maintains control over the area known as the [[Parliamentary Triangle, Canberra|Parliamentary Triangle]] through the [[National Capital Authority]].
[[Greater Western Sydney Giants]], som spiller i Australian Football League, har siden 2012 haft et partnerskab med Canberra ifølge hvilken de skal spille tre hjemmekampe i Manuka Oval i Canberra hver sæson indtil 2021. Fra 2007 til 2011 spillede [[Melbourne Football Club|Melbourne]] og [[Western Bulldogs]] nogle af deres hjemmekampe mod [[Sydney Swans]] på Manuka Oval.<ref>{{cite news|url=|publisher=Australian Broadcasting Corporation|title=Dogs, Demons to play in Canberra|accessdate=9 October 2007|date=16 August 2006|archiveurl= <!-- Bot retrieved archive -->|archivedate=13 October 2007}}</ref>
At the {{CensusAU|2016}}, the population of Canberra was 395,790. As the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of gross territory product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although not the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is lower and the average income higher; tertiary education levels are higher, while the population is younger.
Den historiske [[Prime Minister's XI]] cricketkamp, hvor den premierminister vælger det australske hold, spilles årligt i Manuka Oval.{{sfn|Growden|2008|pp=200-210}} Andre vigtige sportsbegivenheder omfatter [[Canberra Marathon]]<ref>{{cite news|title=Canberra Marathon|url=|publisher=[[Canberra Marathon]] |accessdate=8 October 2007|archiveurl=|archivedate=7 August 2011}}</ref> og City of Canberra Half Ironman Triathlon.
Det australske sportsinstitut, [[Australian Institute of Sport]] (AIS), er beliggende i Canberra-forstaden [[Bruce, Australian Capital Territory|Bruce]].{{sfn|Sparke|1988|p=304}} AIS er en specialiseret uddannelses- og træningsinstitution som coacher elitesportsudøvere fra en række sportsgrene. AIS startede i 1981 og har haft stor succes.{{sfn|Sparke|1988|p=304}} Hovedparten af de australske deltagere og medaljetagere ved [[Sommer-OL 2000]] i Sydney kom fra AIS.<ref>{{cite news|title=History and successes|url=|publisher=[[Australian Institute of Sport]] |accessdate=8 October 2007|archiveurl=|archivedate=18 January 2013}}</ref>
Canberra har adskillige sportsbaner, golfbaner, skaterbaner og svømmerhaller, som er åbne for offentligheden. Der er tennisbaner ved National Sports Club i [[Lyneham, Australian Capital Territory|Lyneham]], hvor [[Canberra Women's Tennis Classic]] tidligere blev spillet. Canberra har et netværk af cykelstier til både rekreationelle formål. Canberra Nature Parks har en række vandrestier, ridestier og [[Mountainbike|mountain bike]] spor. Vandsport som sejlads, roning, dragebådsrace og vandski dyrkes på Canberras søer.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Boating on Lake Burley Griffin|publisher=[[National Capital Authority]]|accessdate=9 October 2007| archiveurl =| archivedate = 23 September 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Lake Burley Griffin reopens|url=|work=ABC News|publisher=Australian Broadcasting Corporation|accessdate=26 July 2010|date=16 November 2007}}</ref> National Capital Rally er et [[Rally|rallyløb]], der afvikles i og omkring Canberra årligt.
==International relations==
{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Oceania}}
Canberra har tre [[Søsterby|søsterbyer]]:
*{{flagicon|China}} [[Beijing]], Kina<ref name=Canberra>{{cite web |url= |title=Canberra's international relationships |publisher=[[Australian Capital Territory Chief Minister's Department|Chief Minister's Department]]}}</ref>
*{{flagicon|Japan}} [[Nara, Nara|Nara]], Japan<ref name=Canberra/>
*{{flagicon|NZL}} [[Wellington]], New Zealand<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Canberra adopts New Zealand capital as sister city|date=7 July 2016|publisher=Australian Broadcasting Corporation|website=ABC News|archiveurl=|archivedate=10 July 2016}}</ref>
===Friendship city relationships===
*The Canberra Dili Friendship Agreement was signed in 2004, aiming to build friendship and mutual respect and promote educational, cultural, economic, humanitarian and sporting links between Canberra and Dili.<ref>{{citation|url=|title=Dili, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste|archiveurl=|archivedate=9 March 2014|publisher=ACT Government Chief Minister and Treasury Directorate|deadurl=no}}</ref>
*The ACT Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Hangzhou Municipal People's Government on 29 October 1998; the Agreement was designed to promote business opportunities and cultural exchanges between the two cities.<ref>{{citation|url=|title=Hangzhou, China|publisher=ACT Government Chief Minister and Treasury Directorate|archiveurl=|archivedate=9 March 2014}}</ref>
==See also==
{{Portal|Australia|Australian Capital Territory}}
* [[1971 Canberra flood]]
* [[2003 Canberra bushfires]]
* [[Lists of capitals]]
* [[List of planned cities]]
* [[List of tallest buildings in Canberra]]