Forskel mellem versioner af "Kinas sociale pointsystem"

m
Rettede slåfejl
(Opretter artikel fra en:wiki om et temmelig uhyggeligt system)
 
m (Rettede slåfejl)
Tags: Mobilredigering Redigering via mobilapp Redigering lavet i iOS appen
| title = China's citizen tracking system can wreck people's lives| author = | work = news.vice.com| date = | access-date = 22 February 2019| url = https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/gy7kpb/chinas-citizen-tracking-system-can-wreck-peoples-lives| quote = }}</ref> Systemet betragtes som en form for [[Masseovervågning i Kina|masseovervågning]], der benytter [[ansigtsgenkendelse]] og [[big data]] analyseteknologi.<ref name="bigdata">{{cite news|last1=Botsman|first1=Rachel|title=Big data meets Big Brother as China moves to rate its citizens|url=https://www.wired.co.uk/article/chinese-government-social-credit-score-privacy-invasion|accessdate=26 October 2017|work=Wired UK}}</ref> I 2019 blev det estimeret at 200 millioner [[overvågningskamera]]er på regeringens "Skynet" var blev opsat i [[Fastlandskina]], og otte kinesiske byer var blandt verdens ti mest overvågede byer. Det er forventet, at antallet af overvågningskameraer vil omfatte 626 millioner enheder i 2020, når det sociale pointsystem er fuldt udrullet.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/08/business/china-surveillance-technology.html|title=Inside China’s Dystopian Dreams: A.I., Shame and Lots of Cameras|last=Mozur|first=Paul|date=2018-07-08|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-11-13|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.abacusnews.com/who-what/skynet-chinas-massive-video-surveillance-network/article/2166938|title=“Skynet”, China’s massive video surveillance network|website=Abacus|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://tech.ifeng.com/a/20180504/44980719_0.shtml|title=中国天网已建成 2亿摄像头毫秒级寻人|last=|first=|date=|website=Phoenix New Media Limited|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3023455/report-finds-cities-china-most-monitored-world|title=Chinese city with world’s heaviest surveillance has 2.5 million cameras|date=2019-08-19|website=South China Morning Post|language=en|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.comparitech.com/vpn-privacy/the-worlds-most-surveilled-cities/|title=The world's most-surveilled cities|website=Comparitech|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://thenextweb.com/security/2019/09/30/chinas-new-500-megapixel-super-camera-can-instantly-recognize-you-in-a-crowd/|title=China's new 500-megapixel 'super camera' can instantly recognize you in a crowd|last=Lakshmanan|first=Ravie|date=2019-09-30|website=The Next Web|language=en-us|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref>
 
I 2018 var der var der allerede lavet restriktioner i nogle byer som, de statsejede medier beskrev som de første trin i arbejdet med at etablerede et nationalt socialt pointsystem. I november 2019 omfattede de officielle lister af ting som gav en negativ score i nogle byer, udover uærligt og uredelig økonomisk opførsel, også at spille høj musik eller spise i [[undergrundsbane]]n<ref name=":8">{{Cite web|url=http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0515/c1001-31086953.html|title=《北京市轨道交通乘客守则》今起实施  车厢内禁止进食|last=|first=|date=|website=politics.people.com.cn|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref>, overtrædelse af færdselsregler som bl.a. fumlegængeri og ikke at overholde røde lys<ref name=":19">{{Cite web|url=http://www.sznews.com/news/content/2019-09/18/content_22478357.htm|title=不开玩笑!11月1日起,行人闯红灯和这些违法行为将纳入征信体系|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=Shenzhen News|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-09}}</ref><ref name=":20">{{Cite web|url=https://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/2019-07-07/doc-ihytcitm0295272.shtml|title=7月8日起 在南京一年闯红灯5次以上将记入个人信用记录|last=|author=|first=|date=2019-07-07|work=|publisher=[[Sina Corp|Sina]]|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-09}}</ref>, at foretage reservationer på hoteller og restauranter uden at møde op<ref name=":12">{{Cite web|url=https://credit.suzhou.com.cn/news/show/22296.html|title=这25条都将被列入个人征信不良,不可不知!|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=苏州市公共信用信息中心|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-09}}</ref>, ikke at lave korrekt [[Kildesortering|affaldssortering]]<ref name=":5">{{Cite web|url=https://qz.com/1173975/garbage-sorting-violators-in-china-risk-getting-a-junk-credit-rating/|title=Garbage-sorting violators in China now risk being punished with a junk credit rating|last=Huang|first=Echo|website=Quartz|language=en|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":18">{{Cite web|url=http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/zw/2019-02-19/detail-ihrfqzka7179229.shtml|title=《上海市生活垃圾管理条例》全文公布 7月1日起施行|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=[[Sina Corp|Sina]]|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-09}}</ref><ref name=":34">{{Cite web|url=http://www.pazjw.gov.cn/yaowen/201908/t20190801_10713181.shtml|title=新《杭州市生活垃圾管理条例》审批通过垃圾不分类乱丢乱扔将被罚款并计入信用档案_省内要闻_平安浙江网|website=www.pazjw.gov.cn|access-date=2019-11-12}}</ref>, snyd med andre personers offentlig rejse[[legitimation]]<ref name=":23">{{Cite web|url=http://www.sohu.com/a/320082697_100191050|title=8月1日起,广州将霸座、骗保、考试作弊等将被纳入失信信息|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=[[Sohu]]|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-10}}</ref>, igog andet. På listen over adfærd som gav positiv score var [[bloddonation]], donations til [[velgørenhed]] og frivilligt arbejde for samfundet.<ref name=":32">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-march-7-2019-1.5046443/how-china-s-social-credit-system-blocked-millions-of-people-from-travelling-1.5046445|title=How China's 'social credit' system blocked millions of people from travelling|last=|first=|date=|website=Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref><ref name=":16">{{Cite web|url=http://www.sohu.com/a/117443710_349646|title=苏州人有自己的信用指标“桂花分”,它的高低对生活有啥影响?|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=Sohu|language=zh|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-09}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2018/06/18/chinas-social-credit-system-spreads-to-more-daily-transactions/|title=China’s social credit system spreads to more daily transactions|last=West|first=Jack Karsten and Darrell M.|date=2018-06-18|website=Brookings|language=en-US|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref>
 
Ifølge [[den nationale kommission for udvikling og reform]] i Kina var der i juni 2019 blevet annulleret 26,82 millioner flybilletter samt 5,96 millioner togbilletter til [[højhastighedsbane]] på baggrund af, at personer var blevet dømt til at være "utroværdige (失信)" (på en [[Blacklist og whitelist|blackliste]]) og 4,37 "utroværdige" personer havde valgt at opfylde deres pligter, som loven krævede.<ref name=":13">{{Cite web|url=http://www.xinhuanet.com/fortune/2019-07/17/c_1124761947.htm|title=2682万人次因失信被限制乘机|last=|first=|date=|website=[[Xinhua News Agency|XinhuaNet]]|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":14">{{Cite web|url=https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/3019333/chinas-social-credit-system-will-not-lead-citizens-losing|title=Social credit system will not stop people using public services, Beijing says|date=2019-07-19|website=South China Morning Post|language=en|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref> Generelt tager det 2-5 år at blive af-blacklistet, men det er muligt at komme af listen tidligere, hvis der er blevet gjort nok for at afhjælpe tidligere synder.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2017-04/28/content_5189713.htm|title=一批新规5月施行 “老赖”名单期限最长可达5年|last=|first=|date=|website=Central Government of China|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-12}}</ref><ref name=":33">{{Cite web|url=https://www.chinanews.com/gn/2017/03-01/8162445.shtml|title=最高法明确“老赖”上榜期限:一般2年 最长或为5年|last=|first=|date=|website=China News|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-12}}</ref> Visse personlige informationer på blacklistede personer er med vilje gjort tilgængelige for offentligheden, og de kan tilgås online samt på flere offentlige steder som [[biograf]]er og busser,<ref name=":33" /><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.creditchina.gov.cn/xinyongfuwu/shixinheimingdan/|title=失信惩戒对象查询|last=|first=|date=|website=www.creditchina.gov.cn|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3007617/chinese-district-court-shows-name-and-shame-debtors-film-warm|title=Court names and shames debtors in warm-up to Avengers movie|date=2019-04-25|website=South China Morning Post|language=en|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":28">{{Cite web|url=http://www.sohu.com/a/328563042_678276|title=加大曝光!这12名“老赖”登上了新昌影院大银幕,最高欠款2000多万元!|author=|first=|date=|work=|publisher=[[Sohu]]|language=|format=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|accessdate=2019-11-10}}</ref> mens nogle byer har forbudt børn af "utroværdige" indbyggere at gå på private skoler og sågar [[universitet]]er.<ref name=":21">{{Cite web|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-social-credit-system-school-ban-family-travel-a8821371.html|title=China could ban children from 'untrustworthy' families from schools under social credit system|date=2019-03-13|website=The Independent|language=en|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":22">{{Cite web|url=https://www.businessinsider.com/china-social-credit-affects-childs-university-enrolment-2018-7|title=A Chinese university suspended a student's enrolment because of his dad's bad social credit score|last=Chan|first=Tara Francis|website=Business Insider|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":25">{{Cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/11/29/social-credit/|title=Opinion {{!}} The West may be wrong about China’s social credit system|last=Song|first=Bing|website=Washington Post|language=en|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":26">{{Cite web|url=http://www.sohu.com/a/246128308_305502|title=高院教委出手:限制失信被执行人子女就读高收费民办学校|last=|first=|date=|website=[[Sohu]]|language=en|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref><ref name=":27">{{Cite web|url=https://school.ieduchina.com/education/201807/34069.html|title=河北衡水治理“老赖”出新招:限制其子女就读私立学校|last=|first=|date=|website=school.ieduchina.com|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-10}}</ref> En høj social score kan til gengæld udløse belønninger så som kortere ventetid på hospitaler og offentlige instanser, rabat på hoteller, større sandsynlighed for at få jobtilbud osv..<ref name=":23" /><ref name=":32" /><ref name=":16" /><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.businessinsider.com/china-social-credit-system-how-to-get-rewards-2019-1|title=China's controversial social credit system isn't just about punishing people — here's what you can do to get rewards, from special discounts to better hotel rooms|last=Ma|first=Alexandra|website=Business Insider|access-date=2019-11-12}}</ref>
 
Støttere af det social pointsystem påstår, at systemet hjælper med at regulere socialt adfærd, at forbedre [[livskvalitet]]en og fremme traditionelle [[moral]]ske værdier,<ref name=":35">{{Cite web|url=http://www.ciis.org.cn/chinese/2019-08/30/content_40880268.html|title=中国社会信用体系建设还需借鉴国际经验,但不接受妄语抹黑|last=|first=|date=|website=China Institute of International Studies|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-11-13}}</ref><ref name=":36">{{Cite journal|last=Kostka|first=Genia|date=2018-07-23|title=China’s Social Credit Systems and Public Opinion: Explaining High Levels of Approval|url=https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3215138|language=en|location=Rochester, NY}}</ref><ref name=":37">{{cite news|url=https://www.fu-berlin.de/en/presse/informationen/fup/2018/fup_18_198-studie-sozialkreditsystem-china/index.html|title=Study: More than two thirds of Chinese take a positive view of social credit systems in their country|date=23 July 2018|work=Freie Universität Berlin}}</ref> mens kritikere af system påstår at det overtræder [[retssamfund]] og krænker [[Privatlivets fred|retten til privatliv]] samt personlig værdighed, og at systemet kan blive et værktøj for omfattende overvågning for regeringen.<ref name=":38">{{Cite web|url=http://www.publiclaw.cn/?c=news&m=view&id=7684|title=社会信用体系建设的法治之道|last=Shen|first=Kui|date=|website=Public Law, Peking University|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref><ref name=":39">{{Cite web|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/01/21/chinese-social-credit-score-utopian-big-data-bliss-or-black-mirror-on-steroids/|title=Chinese Social Credit Score: Utopian Big Data Bliss Or Black Mirror On Steroids?|last=Marr|first=Bernard|website=Forbes|language=en|access-date=2019-11-11}}</ref><ref name=":40">{{Cite web|url=https://thehill.com/opinion/technology/386524-the-west-could-be-closer-to-chinas-system-of-social-credit-scoring-than|title=The West could be closer to China's system of 'social credit scoring' than you think|last=Takala|first=Rudy|date=2018-05-07|website=TheHill|language=en|access-date=2019-11-11}}</ref><ref name=":41">{{Cite web|url=https://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/the-human-rights-implications-of-chinas-social-credit-system/|title=The Human Rights Implications of China’s Social Credit System|date=2019-09-06|website=OHRH|language=en|access-date=2019-11-12}}</ref>
 
== Referencer ==
432

redigeringer