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Following the [[:en:London Conference (1939)]] the British Government published a [[:en:1939 White Paper|White Paper]] which proposed a limit to Jewish immigration from Europe, restrictions on Jewish land purchases, and a program for creating an independent state to replace the Mandate within ten years. This was seen by the [[:en:Yishuv]] as betrayal of the mandatory terms, especially in light of the increasing persecution of Jews in Europe. In response, Zionists organised ''[[:en:Aliyah Bet]]'', a program of illegal immigration into Palestine. [[:en:Lehi (group)|Lehi]], a small group of extremist Zionists, staged armed attacks on British authorities in Palestine. However, the [[:en:Jewish Agency]], which represented the mainstream Zionist leadership and most of the Jewish population, still hoped to persuade Britain to allow resumed Jewish immigration, and cooperated with Britain in World War II.
 
===WorldAnden War IIverdenskrig===
 
====AlliedDe andallierede Axisog activityaksemagterne====
[[File:060 1942 - Tom Beazley's mates (l to r) George Dobner, Norm Grainger ^ Reg Shephard at Tel-Aviv, Pales.jpg|thumb|AustralianAustralske soldierssoldater ini Tel Aviv ini 1942]]
OnDen 10. Junejuni 1940, Italyerklærede declaredItalien warkrig onmod the[[Commonwealth Britishof Nations|Commonwealth]] andog sidedstod withdermed Germany. Withinsamme aside month,som theTyskland. ItaliansItalienerne [[Italianangreb bombingsPalæstina onfra Palestineluften inog Worldbombede WarTel II|attackedAviv Palestineog from the air]]Haifa, bombinghvilket [[Telforårsagede Aviv]]adskillige and [[Haifa]],ofre.<ref>[http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv? Why Italian Planes Bombed Tel-Aviv?] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110921004629/http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv%3F |date=2011-09-21 }}</ref> inflicting multiple casualties.
 
InI 1942, thereopstod wasi aen periodperiode ofstor greatbekymring concernhos forden thejødiske [[Yishuv]]befolkning, whenda theden forces of German Generaltyske [[Erwin Rommel|Rommel]] advancedavancerede easti acrossNordafrika Northi Africaretning towards theaf [[Suez Canal-kanalen]] andog thereder wasvar fearfrygt thatfor theyen woulderobring conqueraf PalestinePalæstina. ThisMed periodbritisk wasstøtte referredblev toen astoptrænet thejødisk "[[200militærenhed days of dread]]." This event was the direct cause for the foundingoprettet, withkaldet British support, of the [[Palmach]].<ref>[http://www.historycentral.com/Israel/1941PalmachFormed.html How the Palmach was formed] (History Central)</ref> – a highly trained regular unit belonging to [[Haganah]] (a paramilitary group which was mostly made up of reserve troops).
 
 
As in most of the Arab world, there was no unanimity amongst the Palestinian Arabs as to their position regarding the belligerents in World War II. A number of leaders and public figures saw an [[Axis powers|Axis]] victory as the likely outcome and a way of securing Palestine back from the Zionists and the British. Even though Arabs were not highly regarded by [[Nazism and race|Nazi racial theory]], the Nazis encouraged Arab support as a counter to British hegemony.<ref>Secret World War II documents released by the UK in July 2001, include documents on [[Operation ATLAS]] (See [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/july2001.pdf References: KV 2/400–402]. A German task force led by [[Kurt Wieland]] parachuted into Palestine in September 1944. This was one of the last German efforts in the region to attack the Jewish community in Palestine and undermine British rule by supplying local Arabs with cash, arms and sabotage equipment. The team was captured shortly after landing.</ref> On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration in 1943, SS-Reichsfuehrer [[Heinrich Himmler]] and Foreign Minister [[Joachim von Ribbentrop]] sent telegrams of support for the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, [[Mohammad Amin al-Husseini]] to read out for a radio broadcast to a rally of supporters in Berlin.{{efn|From Himmler: <blockquote>The National Socialist movement of Greater Germany has, since its inception, inscribed upon its flag the fight against the world Jewry. It has therefore followed with particular sympathy the struggle of freedom-loving Arabs, especially in Palestine, against Jewish interlopers. In the recognition of this enemy and of the common struggle against it lies the firm foundation of the natural alliance that exists between the National Socialist Greater Germany and the freedom-loving Muslims of the whole world. In this spirit I am sending you on the anniversary of the infamous Balfour declaration my hearty greetings and wishes for the successful pursuit of your struggle until the final victory.</blockquote>
 
On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the British Commonwealth and sided with Germany. Within a month, the Italians [[:en:Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II|attacked Palestine from the air]], bombing [[:en:Tel Aviv]] and [[:en:Haifa]],<ref>[http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv? Why Italian Planes Bombed Tel-Aviv?] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110921004629/http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv%3F |date=2011-09-21 }}</ref> inflicting multiple casualties.
 
In 1942, there was a period of great concern for the [[:en:Yishuv]], when the forces of German General [[:en:Erwin Rommel]] advanced east across North Africa towards the [[:en:Suez Canal]] and there was fear that they would conquer Palestine. This period was referred to as the "[[:en:200 days of dread]]." This event was the direct cause for the founding, with British support, of the [[:en:Palmach]]<ref>[http://www.historycentral.com/Israel/1941PalmachFormed.html How the Palmach was formed] (History Central)</ref> – a highly trained regular unit belonging to [[:en:Haganah]] (a paramilitary group which was mostly made up of reserve troops).
 
As in most of the Arab world, there was no unanimity amongst the Palestinian Arabs as to their position regarding the belligerents in World War II. A number of leaders and public figures saw an [[:en:Axis powers|Axis]] victory as the likely outcome and a way of securing Palestine back from the Zionists and the British. Even though Arabs were not highly regarded by [[:en:Nazism and race|Nazi racial theory]], the Nazis encouraged Arab support as a counter to British hegemony.<ref>Secret World War II documents released by the UK in July 2001, include documents on [[:en:Operation ATLAS]] (See [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/july2001.pdf References: KV 2/400–402]. A German task force led by [[:en:Kurt Wieland]] parachuted into Palestine in September 1944. This was one of the last German efforts in the region to attack the Jewish community in Palestine and undermine British rule by supplying local Arabs with cash, arms and sabotage equipment. The team was captured shortly after landing.</ref> On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration in 1943, SS-Reichsfuehrer [[:en:Heinrich Himmler]] and Foreign Minister [[:en:Joachim von Ribbentrop]] sent telegrams of support for the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, [[:en:Mohammad Amin al-Husseini]] to read out for a radio broadcast to a rally of supporters in Berlin.{{efn|From Himmler: <blockquote>The National Socialist movement of Greater Germany has, since its inception, inscribed upon its flag the fight against the world Jewry. It has therefore followed with particular sympathy the struggle of freedom-loving Arabs, especially in Palestine, against Jewish interlopers. In the recognition of this enemy and of the common struggle against it lies the firm foundation of the natural alliance that exists between the National Socialist Greater Germany and the freedom-loving Muslims of the whole world. In this spirit I am sending you on the anniversary of the infamous Balfour declaration my hearty greetings and wishes for the successful pursuit of your struggle until the final victory.</blockquote>
 
From Ribbentrop:<blockquote>I am sending my greetings to your eminence and to the participants of the meeting held today in the Reich capital under your chairmanship. Germany is linked to the Arab nation by old ties of friendship, and today we are united more than ever before. The elimination of the socalled Jewish national home and the liberation of all Arab countries from the oppression and exploitation of the Western powers is an unchangeable part of the Great German Reich policy. Let the hour not be far off when the Arab nation will be able to build its future and find unity in full independence.</blockquote>}}<ref>{{cite book|author = Moshe Pearlman|authorlink=Moshe Pearlman|title=Mufti of Jerusalem; the story of Haj Amin el Husseini|date=1947|publisher= V. Gollancz|page=50}}</ref>
 
====Mobilisation====
[[File:JB HQ.jpg|thumb|Jewish Brigade headquarters under the [[:en:Union Flag]] and [[:en:Flag of Israel|Jewish flag]]]]
On 3 July 1944, the British government consented to the establishment of a [[:en:Jewish Brigade]], with hand-picked Jewish and also non-Jewish senior officers. On 20 September 1944, an official communiqué by the War Office announced the formation of the Jewish Brigade Group of the British Army. The Jewish brigade then was stationed in [[:en:Tarvisio]], near the border triangle of Italy, [[:en:Yugoslavia]], and Austria, where it played a key role in the [[:en:Berihah]]'s efforts to help Jews escape Europe for Palestine, a role many of its members would continue after the brigade was disbanded. Among its projects was the education and care of the [[:en:Selvino children]]. Later, veterans of the Jewish Brigade became key participants of the new [[:en:State of Israel]]'s [[:en:Israel Defense Forces]].
 
From the Palestine Regiment, two platoons, one Jewish, under the command of Brigadier [[:en:Ernest Benjamin]], and another Arab were sent to join allied forces on the [[:en:Italian Campaign (World War II)|Italian Front]], having taken part of [[:en:Spring 1945 offensive in Italy|final offensive]] there.
 
Besides Jews and Arabs from Palestine, in total by mid-1944 the British had assembled a multiethnic force consisting of volunteer European Jewish refugees (from German-occupied countries), [[:en:Yemenite Jews]] and [[:en:Beta Israel|Abyssinian Jews]].<ref>Corrigan, Gordon. ''The Second World War'' Thomas Dunne Books, 2011 {{ISBN|9780312577094}} p. 523, last paragraph</ref>
 
====The Holocaust and immigration quotas====
In 1939, as a consequence of the [[:en:White Paper of 1939]], the British reduced the number of immigrants allowed into Palestine. World War II and the [[:en:Holocaust]] started shortly thereafter and once the 15,000 annual quota was exceeded, Jews fleeing Nazi persecution were interned in detention camps or deported to places such as [[:en:Mauritius]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Lenk |first=RS |title=The Mauritius Affair, The Boat People of 1940–41 |location=London |publisher=R Lenk |year=1994 |isbn=978-0951880524}}</ref>
 
Starting in 1939, a clandestine immigration effort called [[:en:Aliya Bet]] was spearheaded by an organisation called [[:en:Mossad LeAliyah Bet]]. Tens of thousands of European Jews escaped the Nazis in boats and small ships headed for Palestine. The [[:en:Royal Navy]] intercepted many of the vessels; others were unseaworthy and were wrecked; a [[:en:Haganah]] bomb sunk the {{SS|Patria|1913|6}}, killing 267 people; two other ships were sunk by [[:en:Shchuka-class submarine|Soviet submarines]]: the motor [[:en:schooner]] {{MV|Struma||2}} was [[:en:Struma disaster|torpedoed and sunk]] in the [[:en:Black Sea]] by a Soviet submarine in February 1942 with the loss of nearly 800 lives.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/holocaust/0140_Struma.html#P9 |last=Aroni |first=Samuel |title=Who Perished On The Struma And How Many? |year=2002–2007 |publisher=JewishGen.org}}</ref> The last refugee boats to try to reach Palestine during the war were the ''Bulbul'', {{MV|Mefküre||2}} and ''Morina'' in August 1944. A Soviet submarine sank the motor schooner ''Mefküre'' by torpedo and shellfire and machine-gunned survivors in the water,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://flot.sevastopol.info/ship/podlodki/shya215.htm |script-title=ru:Подводная лодка "Щ-215" |website=Черноморский Флот информационный ресурс |language=Russian |date=2000–2013 |accessdate=27 March 2013}}</ref> killing between 300 and 400 refugees.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.wertheimer.info/family/GRAMPS/Haapalah/plc/2/7/bea98dbf1dc6d1a1772.html |title=מפקורה SS Mefküre Mafkura Mefkura |website=Haapalah / Aliyah Bet |date=27 September 2011 |accessdate=26 March 2013}}</ref> Illegal immigration resumed after World War II.
 
After the war 250,000 Jewish refugees were stranded in displaced persons (DP) camps in Europe. Despite the pressure of world opinion, in particular the repeated requests of US President [[:en:Harry S. Truman]] and the recommendations of the [[:en:Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry]] that 100,000 Jews be immediately granted entry to Palestine, the British maintained the ban on immigration.
 
====Beginning of Zionist insurgency====
[[File:VE day Jerusalem 1945.jpg|thumb|Jerusalem on [[:en:VE Day]], 8 May 1945]]
The Jewish [[:en:Lehi (group)|Lehi (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel)]] and [[:en:Irgun|Irgun (National Military Organisation)]] movements initiated [[:en:Jewish insurgency in Palestine|violent uprisings]] against the British Mandate in the 1940s. On 6 November 1944, [[:en:Eliyahu Hakim]] and [[:en:Eliyahu Bet Zuri]] (members of Lehi) assassinated [[:en:Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne|Lord Moyne]] in [[:en:Cairo]]. Moyne was the British Minister of State for the Middle East and the assassination is said by some to have turned British Prime Minister [[:en:Winston Churchill]] against the Zionist cause. After the assassination of [[:en:Lord Moyne]], the [[:en:Haganah]] kidnapped, interrogated, and turned over to the British many members of the Irgun ("[[:en:The Hunting Season]]"), and the Jewish Agency Executive decided on a series of measures against "terrorist organisations" in Palestine.<ref>[https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/season.html The "Hunting Season" (1945)] by Yehuda Lapidot ([[:en:Jewish Virtual Library]])</ref> Irgun ordered its members not to resist or retaliate with violence, so as to prevent a civil war.
 
===After World War II: Insurgency and the Partition Plan===