Forskel mellem versioner af "Bruger:Weblars/Sandkasse5"

897 bytes tilføjet ,  for 1 måned siden
Den 10. juni 1940 erklærede Italien krig mod [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]] og stod dermed på samme side som Tyskland. Italienerne angreb Palæstina fra luften og bombede Tel Aviv og Haifa, hvilket forårsagede adskillige ofre.<ref>[http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv? Why Italian Planes Bombed Tel-Aviv?] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110921004629/http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?ID=470&t=Why-Italian-Planes-Bombed-Tel-Aviv%3F |date=2011-09-21 }}</ref>
 
I 1942 opstod i en periode stor bekymring hos den jødiske befolkning, da den tyske [[Erwin Rommel|Rommel]] avancerede i Nordafrika i retning af [[Suez-kanalen]] og der var frygt for en erobring af Palæstina. Med britisk støtte blev en toptrænet jødisk militærenhed oprettet, kaldet [[Palmach]].<ref>[http://www.historycentral.com/Israel/1941PalmachFormed.html How the Palmach was formed] (History Central)</ref>
 
Som i størstedelen af den arabiske verden var der blandt de palæstinensiske arabere ingen enighed om deres stilling til de krigsførende magter i anden verdenskrig. Flere ledere og offentlige personer anså aksemagterne som sandsynlig vinder og som en måde at sikre sig Palæstina tilbage fra zionisterne og briterne. Selv om arabere ikke stod højt i den nazistiske racelære, opmuntrede nazisterne til at støtte araberne som en modvægt til briternes overherredømme.{{efn|Hemmelige dokumenter fra anden verdenskrig frigivet af Storbritannien i juli 2001 inkluderer omtalen af en tysk specialenhed (Operation Atlas), der i faldskærm blev kastet ud over Palæstina i september 1944. Det var et af de sidste forsøg fra tysk side på at angribe jøderne i Palæstina og underminere det britiske styre ved at forsyne lokale arabere med kontanter, våben og udstyr til sabotage. Specialenheden blev fanget kort efter landing.<ref>[http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/july2001.pdf References: KV 2/400–402]</ref>}}.
 
 
 
====Mobilisation====
 
[[File:JB HQ.jpg|thumb|Jewish Brigade headquarters under the [[:en:Union Flag]] and [[:en:Flag of Israel|Jewish flag]]]]
On 3 July 1944, the British government consented to the establishment of a [[:en:Jewish Brigade]], with hand-picked Jewish and also non-Jewish senior officers. On 20 September 1944, an official communiqué by the War Office announced the formation of the Jewish Brigade Group of the British Army. The Jewish brigade then was stationed in [[:en:Tarvisio]], near the border triangle of Italy, [[:en:Yugoslavia]], and Austria, where it played a key role in the [[:en:Berihah]]'s efforts to help Jews escape Europe for Palestine, a role many of its members would continue after the brigade was disbanded. Among its projects was the education and care of the [[:en:Selvino children]]. Later, veterans of the Jewish Brigade became key participants of the new [[:en:State of Israel]]'s [[:en:Israel Defense Forces]].
 
In 1939, as a consequence of the [[:en:White Paper of 1939]], the British reduced the number of immigrants allowed into Palestine. World War II and the [[:en:Holocaust]] started shortly thereafter and once the 15,000 annual quota was exceeded, Jews fleeing Nazi persecution were interned in detention camps or deported to places such as [[:en:Mauritius]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Lenk |first=RS |title=The Mauritius Affair, The Boat People of 1940–41 |location=London |publisher=R Lenk |year=1994 |isbn=978-0951880524}}</ref>
 
Starting in 1939, a clandestine immigration effort called [[:en:Aliya Bet]] was spearheaded by an organisation called [[:en:Mossad LeAliyah Bet]]. Tens of thousands of European Jews escaped the Nazis in boats and small ships headed for Palestine. The [[:en:Royal Navy]] intercepted many of the vessels; others were unseaworthy and were wrecked; a [[:en:Haganah]] bomb sunk the {{SS| Patria|1913|6}}, killing 267 people; two other ships were sunk by [[:en:Shchuka-class submarine|Soviet submarines]]: the motor [[:en:schooner]] {{MV|Struma||2}} was [[:en:Struma disaster|torpedoed and sunk]] in the [[:en:Black Sea]] by a Soviet submarine in February 1942 with the loss of nearly 800 lives.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/holocaust/0140_Struma.html#P9 |last=Aroni |first=Samuel |title=Who Perished On The Struma And How Many? |year=2002–2007 |publisher=JewishGen.org}}</ref> The last refugee boats to try to reach Palestine during the war were the ''Bulbul'', {{MV|''Mefküre||2}}'' and ''Morina'' in August 1944. A Soviet submarine sank the motor schooner ''Mefküre'' by torpedo and shellfire and machine-gunned survivors in the water,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://flot.sevastopol.info/ship/podlodki/shya215.htm |script-title=ru:Подводная лодка "Щ-215" |website=Черноморский Флот информационный ресурс |language=Russian |date=2000–2013 |accessdate=27 March 2013}}</ref> killing between 300 and 400 refugees.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.wertheimer.info/family/GRAMPS/Haapalah/plc/2/7/bea98dbf1dc6d1a1772.html |title=מפקורה SS Mefküre Mafkura Mefkura |website=Haapalah / Aliyah Bet |date=27 September 2011 |accessdate=26 March 2013}}</ref> Illegal immigration resumed after World War II.
 
After the war 250,000 Jewish refugees were stranded in displaced persons (DP) camps in Europe. Despite the pressure of world opinion, in particular the repeated requests of US President [[:en:Harry S. Truman]] and the recommendations of the [[:en:Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry]] that 100,000 Jews be immediately granted entry to Palestine, the British maintained the ban on immigration.