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I juli 1920 blev militæradministrationen erstattet af en civil administration, da den første [[Højkommissær]] (High Commissioner), [[Herbert Samuel]] ankom fra Storbritannien.<ref>[https://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/FB6DD3F0E9535815852572DD006CC607 ''Official Records of the Second Session of the General Assembly'', Supplement No. 11, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, Report to the General Assembly, Volume 1. Lake Success, NY, 1947. A/364, 3 September 1947, Chapter II.C.68.] {{webarchive|url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140603191241/http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/FB6DD3F0E9535815852572DD006CC607 |date= 3 June 2014 }}</ref> Han var tidligere minister med jødiske rødder.
 
En af de første handlinger fra den nye civiladministration var at give [[Pinhas Rutenberg]], en jødisk entreprenør, tilladelse til produktion og distribution af elektricitet. Rutenberg oprettede et selskab, hvis aktionærer var [[Zionisme|zionistiske]] organisationer, investorer og
velgørere. Palæstinensiske arabere anså dette som et bevis for, at briterne ønskede at favorisere zionismen. Den britiske administration hævdede, at elektrificering ville øge den økonomiske udvikling for hele landet, mens den på samme tid ville opfylde løftet om at muliggøre et jødisk nationalt hjem ved hjælp af økonomiske snarere end politiske virkemidler.<ref>Shamir, Ronen (2013) ''Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine'' Stanford: Stanford University Press</ref>
 
Da oprøret sluttede i marts 1939 var mere end 5.000 arabere, 400 jøder og 200 briter blevet dræbt, og mindst 15.000 arabere såret.<ref name=HistoryOfPalestinianRevolts>{{cite web|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9A489B74-6477-4E67-9C22-0F53A3CC9ADF.htm |title=Aljazeera: The history of Palestinian revolts |accessdate=2005-12-15 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20051215061527/http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9A489B74-6477-4E67-9C22-0F53A3CC9ADF.htm |archivedate=December 15, 2005 }}</ref>
 
Following the [[:en:London Conference (1939)]] the British Government published a [[:en:1939 White Paper|White Paper]] which proposed a limit to Jewish immigration from Europe, restrictions on Jewish land purchases, and a program for creating an independent state to replace the Mandate within ten years.
 
[[File:Jewish protest demonstrations against Palestine White Paper, May 18, 1939. King George Ave, Jerusalem.jpg|thumb|right|JewishJødisk demonstration againstmod White[[Hvidbogen Paperaf in1939]] i Jerusalem ini 1939]]
 
The death of al-Qassam on 20 November 1935 generated widespread outrage in the Arab community. Huge crowds accompanied Qassam's body to his grave in [[:en:Haifa]]. A few months later, in April 1936, the Arab national [[:en:general strike]] broke out. The strike lasted until October 1936, instigated by the Arab Higher Committee, headed by Amin al-Husseini. During the summer of that year, thousands of Jewish-farmed acres and orchards were destroyed, Jewish civilians were attacked and killed, and some Jewish communities, such as those in [[:en:Beisan]] ([[:en:Beit She'an]]) and [[:en:Acre, Israel|Acre]], fled to safer areas. {{Harv|Gilbert|1998|p= 80}} The violence abated for about a year while the British sent the [[:en:Peel Commission]] to investigate. {{Harv|Khalidi|2006|pp=87–90}}
 
====Partition proposals====
 
[[File:Jewish protest demonstrations against Palestine White Paper, May 18, 1939. King George Ave, Jerusalem.jpg|thumb|right|Jewish demonstration against White Paper in Jerusalem in 1939]]
In 1937, the Peel Commission proposed a partition between a small Jewish state, whose Arab population would have to be transferred, and an Arab state to be attached to Jordan. The proposal was rejected outright by the Arabs. The two main Jewish leaders, [[:en:Chaim Weizmann]] and [[:en:David Ben-Gurion]], had convinced the [[:en:World Zionist Congress|Zionist Congress]] to approve equivocally the Peel recommendations as a basis for more negotiation.<ref name="books.google.com">William Roger Louis, [https://books.google.com/books/about/Ends_of_British_Imperialism.html?id=NQnpQNKeKKAC&redir_esc=y Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization], 2006, p. 391</ref><ref name="Benny Morris 2009, p. 66">Benny Morris, ''One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict'', 2009, p. 66</ref><ref name="Benny Morris p. 48">Benny Morris, [https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Birth_of_the_Palestinian_Refugee_Pro.html?id=uM_kFX6edX8C&redir_esc=y The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited], p. 48; p. 11 "while the Zionist movement, after much agonising, accepted the principle of partition and the proposals as a basis for negotiation"; p. 49 "In the end, after bitter debate, the Congress equivocally approved—by a vote of 299 to 160—the Peel recommendations as a basis for further negotiation."</ref><ref>'Zionists Ready To Negotiate British Plan As Basis', ''The Times'' Thursday, 12 August 1937; p. 10; Issue 47761; col B.</ref><ref>Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." ''The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East''. Ed. [[:en:Avraham Sela]]. New York: Continuum, 2002, p. 122.</ref> In [[:en:1937 Ben-Gurion letter|a letter to his son in October 1937]], Ben-Gurion explained that partition would be a first step to "possession of the land as a whole."<ref>[http://www.palestineremembered.com/download/B-G%20LetterTranslation.pdf Letter from David Ben-Gurion to his son Amos, written 5 October 1937], Obtained from the Ben-Gurion Archives in Hebrew, and translated into English by the [[:en:Institute of Palestine Studies]], Beirut</ref><ref>{{citation|last=Morris|first=Benny|authorlink=Benny Morris|title= Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998|publisher=Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group|year=2011|isbn=9780307788054|p=138}} Quote: "No Zionist can forgo the smallest portion of the Land Of Israel. [A] Jewish state in part [of Palestine] is not an end, but a beginning ….. Our possession is important not only for itself … through this we increase our power, and every increase in power facilitates getting hold of the country in its entirety. Establishing a [small] state …. will serve as a very potent lever in our historical effort to redeem the whole country"</ref><ref name=Finkelstein208>{{citation|title=Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-semitism and the Abuse of History|first=Norman|last=Finkelstein|publisher=University of California Press|year=2005|isbn=9780520245983|p=280|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Xmi2Yw0QzN8C&pg=PA280#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> The same sentiment was recorded by Ben-Gurion on other occasions, such as at a meeting of the Jewish Agency executive in June 1938,<ref>Quote from a meeting of the Jewish Agency executive in June 1938: “[I am] satisfied with part of the country, but on the basis of the assumption that after we build up a strong force following the establishment of the state, we will abolish the partition of the country and we will expand to the whole Land of Israel.” in<br />{{citation|title=Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882–1948|first=Nur|last=Masalha|publisher=Inst for Palestine Studies|year=1992|isbn=9780887282355|p=[https://archive.org/details/expulsionofpales00masa/page/107 107]|url=https://archive.org/details/expulsionofpales00masa/page/107}}; and<br />{{citation|title=One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate|first=Tom|last=Segev|publisher=Henry Holt and Company|year=2000|isbn=9780805048483|page=[https://archive.org/details/onepalestinecomp00sege/page/403 403]|url=https://archive.org/details/onepalestinecomp00sege/page/403}}</ref> as well as by [[:en:Chaim Weizmann]].<ref name=Finkelstein208/><ref>From a letter from Chaim Weizmann to [[:en:Arthur Grenfell Wauchope]], [[:en:High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan|High Commissioner for Palestine]], while the Peel Commission was convening in 1937: “We shall spread in the whole country in the course of time ….. this is only an arrangement for the next 25 to 30 years.” {{citation|title=Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948|first=Nur|last=Masalha|publisher=Inst for Palestine Studies|year=1992|isbn=9780887282355|p=[https://archive.org/details/expulsionofpales00masa/page/62 62]|url=https://archive.org/details/expulsionofpales00masa/page/62}}</ref>
 
 
====The Holocaust and immigration quotas====
I 1939 reducerede briterne som en konsekvens af [[Hvidbogen af 1939]] antallet af tilladte immigranter til Palæstina. Anden verdenskrig og [[Holocaust]] begyndte kort derefter og da den årlige kvote på 15.000 var nået, blev flygtende jøder fra naziforfølgelse interneret i lejre eller deporteret til steder som [[Mauritius]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Lenk |first=RS |title=The Mauritius Affair, The Boat People of 1940–41 |location=London |publisher=R Lenk |year=1994 |isbn=978-0951880524}}</ref>
 
 
In 1939, as a consequence of the [[:en:White Paper of 1939]], the British reduced the number of immigrants allowed into Palestine. World War II and the [[:en:Holocaust]] started shortly thereafter and once the 15,000 annual quota was exceeded, Jews fleeing Nazi persecution were interned in detention camps or deported to places such as [[:en:Mauritius]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Lenk |first=RS |title=The Mauritius Affair, The Boat People of 1940–41 |location=London |publisher=R Lenk |year=1994 |isbn=978-0951880524}}</ref>