Pinse: Forskelle mellem versioner

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(2020 dato)
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'''Pinse''' kommer af [[græsk]] πεντηκοστή ''pentēkostḗ'', der betyder "halvtredsindstyvende" (dag efter [[påske]]) og er en [[kristendom|kristen]] [[højtid]], der holdes årligt til minde om [[Helligånden]]s komme. I 2020 falder pinsedag den 31. maj.
 
Ifølge beretningen i [[Apostlenes Gerninger]] kapitel 2 skete det ti dage efter [[Kristi himmelfart]], at [[apostel|apostlene]] var samlet for at fejre den jødiske højtid [[Shavuot]], da der pludselig kom "en lyd som af et kraftigt vindstød" og ''tunger som af ild'' kom til syne og sætter sig på hver af dem. De blev derefter fyldt af Helligånden og begyndte at "tale på andre tungemål", hvorved de kunne gøre det kristne budskab forståeligt for de jøder fra mange forskellige verdensdele, der var i [[Jerusalem]]<ref>{{Bib|Apostlenes Gerninger|ApG|2}}</ref> – denne episode kaldes normalt "pinseunderet". Pinsen regnes således traditionelt for den kristne kirkes fødsel<ref> [http://www.bibelselskabet.dk/BrugBibelen/BibelenOnline.aspx?book=matt&id=3&chapter=20b Apostlenes Gerninger kapitel 2] </ref>.
 
[[Pinsekirken]] har taget navn efter netop denne begivenhed, fordi den i særlig grad blandt de kristne trossamfund, lægger vægt på tungetalen og de øvrige [[nådegave]]r, som Helligånden menes at udstyre de genfødte kristne med.
I [[Den østlige ortodokse kirke]] er pinsen en af de store ortodokse højtider og bliver regnet som den næst vigtigste af de store højtider efter påsken. Natten til første pinsedag holdes der en vågenat, og selve pinsedag fejres Den guddommelige liturgi, [[nadver]]en. Ortodokse templer bliver ofte dekoreret med blomster og det lægges vægt på at gøre udtrykkene i fejringen lig den jødiske Shavuot-højtid, som fejrer modtagelsen af moseloven.
Selve højtidsfejringen varer i tre dage. Den første dag er kendt som "treenighedssøndag", den anden dag er kendt som "Åndsmandagen" (eller "Den hellige ånds mandag"), og den tredje dag, tirsdag, kaldes "Tredje dag af Treenigheden". Efterfejringen af pinsen varer i en uge, en periode hvor faste ikke tillades, selv ikke onsdag eller fredag, som i de østlige kirker regnes som fastedage. Den traditionelle russisk-ortodokse farve for pinse er grøn, og gejstlighetengejstligheden bærer blomster og grønne grene i hænderne under gudstjenesterne.
 
En ekstra gudstjeneste kaldet knælende bøn, bliver afviklet pinsenat. Gudstjenesten følger aftensangformen og indeholder tre dele med langvarige poetiske bønner, skrevne af sankt Basil den store, hvorpå deltagerne gennemfører en fuldstændig knælen, med kontakt mellem panden og gulvet. Denne form for knælen er forbudt i kirken fra påskedag til denne dag.
Alle de tilbageværende dage i kirkeåret, frem til den næste store fastetid, bærer navn efter hvilket nummer de er i forhold til pinsen (for eksempel, 13. tirsdag efter pinse). Den anden mandag efter pinse markerer begyndelsen på [[Apostlenes faste]], som varer indtil [[Sankt Peter og Pauls helligdag]] den [[29. juni]].
 
Det ortodokse [[Græsk-ortodoks ikonografi|ikon]], som omhandler højtiden, viser de tolv apostlene siddende i en halvcirkel, nogen gange også med [[Theotokos]] – [[jomfru Maria]] – siddende i midten. Øverst på ikonet er ofte Den hellige ånd afbildet som en hvid due, med tunger af ild over apostlenes hoveder. Nederst finder man en allegorisk figur, som skal forestille verden, kaldet Kosmos. Selv om Kosmos er kronet med verdslig ære, er han omhyldet af mørke, eftersom han ikke er genstand for Guds ære. Han holder et klæde med 12 [[bogrulle]]r på, noget som repræsenterer de tolv apostles lære.
 
I den urgamle [[Den koptiske ortodokse kirke|koptiske ortodokse kirke]] af Alexandria, er pinsen en av de syv store "Herrens højtider". Fejringen finder sted den niende time (kl. 15:00) på første pinsedag. Der bliver bedt en speciel bøn med tre led kendt som "Knælende bøn". Den hellige ånd faldt i følge Apostlenes Gerninger kapitel 2 over apostlene i den niende time. Denne højtid efterfølges af "Apostlenes faste" som har en fastsat slutdato, den femte dag i den koptiske måned [[Epip]] (som nu faller på den 12. juli, svarende til den 29. juni på grund af den 13-dages forskel forårsaget af skiftet fra [[juliansk kalender|juliansk]] til [[Den gregorianske kalender|georgiansk kalender]]). Den femte Epip markerer Sankt Peter og Sankt Pauls martyrdom.
[[File:Pentecost Altar.jpg|thumb|left|Et alter i en protestantisk kirke, dekoreret med røde lys og røde banner og et alterklæde med et motiv som forestiller Den hellige ånds virke på pinsedag.]]
 
De liturgiske fejring af pinsen i de [[Vestlig kristendom|vestlige kirker]] er lige så detaljerede og varierede som i østkirken. Farven rød, som symboliserer glæde og ilden fra Den hellige ånd, er pinsens farve i de vestlige kirker. Præster, forstandere og kormedlemmer bærer røde liturgiske plaggklæder, og i senere tid harer det nogennogle steder også blevet vanligerealmindeligere, at lægfolket i menigheden klæder sig i rødt. Røde bannerbannere bliver ofte hængt på væggene eller fra taget for at symbolisere den "stormende, mægtige vind" skildret i Apostlenes Gerninger<ref>{{Bib|Apostlenes Gerninger |ApG|2,|2}}</ref> og Den hellige ånds frie udfoldelse. På bannerne kan det være broderet på symboler for Den hellige ånd, som en due, flammer, symboler for kirken som [[Noas ark]] og [[granatæble]]t. I protestantiske kirker innenforinden for evangelikalevangelisk og reformeret tradition, finder man ofte ord i stedet for billeder, som for eksempel opremsingenopremsningen af de syv åndsgaver og Den hellige ånds frugter. Røde blomster på alteret, eller ved prædikestolen, og røde blomster som [[pelargonium]] kan være plantet rundt kirkebygget. Traditionen med at sponse plantningen af en enkelt plante til minde om en person, findes både i katolske og protestantiske menigheder.
 
I [[Tysk (sprog)|tysk]]sproglige lande, i [[Centraleuropa]], og i lande, hvor der findes efterkommere af disse, bruges grønne grene til at dekorere kirkerne til pinse. [[Birk]] er den træsort, som ofte bruges til dette formål, men i områder med et andet klima, benyttes også andre træsorter.
 
En vigtig del af pinsefejringen er at synge salmer med tekst som fortæller om pinsen. I [[Den katolske kirke]] synges ''[[Veni Sancte Spiritus]]'' (''Kom Hellig Ånd'') som en [[gregoriansk sang|gregoriansk]] sekvens under pinsedagsmessen. Denne liturgiske sang er blevet oversat til flere sprog og synges også i dag i mange kirkesamfund.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hymntime.com/tch/bio/m/a/u/maurus_r.htm |title=Rhabanus Maurus |publisher=Hymntime.com |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15341a.htm |title=CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Veni Creator Spiritus |publisher=Newadvent.org |date=1912-10-01 |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref>
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In the Roman Catholic Church, [[Veni Sancte Spiritus]] is the [[Sequence (poetry)|sequence hymn]] for the Day of Pentecost. This has been translated into many languages and is sung in many denominations today. See also [[Veni Creator Spiritus]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hymntime.com/tch/bio/m/a/u/maurus_r.htm |title=Rhabanus Maurus |publisher=Hymntime.com |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15341a.htm |title=CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Veni Creator Spiritus |publisher=Newadvent.org |date=1912-10-01 |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref>
 
Trumpeters or [[brass instrument|brass ensembles]] are often specially contracted to accompany singing and provide special music at Pentecost services, recalling the Sound of the mighty wind.<ref name="bibleverse|Acts|2:2|KJV"/> While this practice is common among a wide spectrum of Western denominations (Eastern Churches do not employ instrumental accompaniment in their worship) it is particularly typical, and distinctive to the heritage of the [[Moravian Church music|Moravian]] Church.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.moravianmusic.org/ |title=Moravian Music Foundation |publisher=Moravianmusic.org |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref>
 
Another custom is reading the appointed Scripture lessons in multiple foreign languages recounting the speaking in tongues recorded in {{bibleref2|Acts|2:4-12}}<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=eu2bmleXc0YC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=Multilingual+readings+Pentecost&source=bl&ots=e0OueIq1Nb&sig=b0HmmDdfOAvTvV1GW2wfUkNzvw0&hl=en&ei=XEnIS8CYNoq8QSj1uHgCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=To dance with God: family ritual and ... - Google Books |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref>
 
In the [[Middle Ages]], [[cathedrals]] and great churches throughout Western Europe were fitted with a peculiar architectural feature known as a Holy Ghost hole; a small circular opening in the roof that symbolized the entrance of Holy Spirit into the midst of the assembled worshippers. At Pentecost, these Holy Ghost holes would be decorated with flowers, and sometimes a dove figure lowered through into the church while the story of the Pentecost was read. Holy Ghost holes can still be seen today in European churches such as [[Canterbury Cathedral]].
 
[[File:PentecostBalloons.jpg|thumb|left|An Episcopal church in the United States with red balloons on Pentecost]]
Similarly, a large two dimensional dove figure would be, and in some places still are, cut out of wood, painted and decorated with flowers, to be lowered over the people, particularly during the singing of the [[sequence (poetry)|sequence hymn]], or [[Veni Creator Spiritus]]. In other places, particularly [[Sicily]] and the [[Italy|Italian peninsula]], [[rose]] petals were and are thrown from the galleries over the congregation calling to mind the tongues of fire. In modern times, this practice has been revived, and interestingly adapted as well, to include the strewing of [[origami]] doves from above, or suspending them – sometimes by the hundreds – from the ceiling.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ecva.org/congregations/resources/trinity_bloomington_pentecost/trinity_pentecost.htm |title=The Episcopal Church and Visual Arts |publisher=Ecva.org |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref> In some cases, red fans, or red handkerchiefs are distributed to the assembled worshippers to be waved during the procession, etc. Other congregations have incorporated the use of red balloons, signifying the “Church’s Birthday” into their festivities. These may be carried by worshippers, used to decorate the sanctuary, or released all at once.
 
For some [[Protestants]], the nine days between [[Ascension Day]], and Pentecost are set aside as a time of [[fasting]], and world-wide prayer in honor of the disciples' time of prayer and unity awaiting the Holy Spirit. Similarly among [[Roman Catholics]], special Pentecost [[Novenas]] are held. The Pentecost Novena is considered the first Novena, all other Novenas offered in preparation of various festivals and [[Saints days]] deriving their practice from those original nine days of prayer observed by the disciples of Christ. While the Eve of Pentecost was traditionally a day of fasting for Catholics, today’s [[canon law]] no longer requires it. Both Catholics and Protestants may hold spiritual [[retreats]], prayer [[vigil]]s and [[litanies]] in the days leading up to Pentecost. In some cases vigils on the Eve of Pentecost may last all night. Pentecost is also one of the occasions specially appointed for the Lutheran Litany to be sung.<ref>{{cite web|author=(P. Drews.) |url=http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc06/htm/iii.lxxiv.xvi.htm |title=Litany |publisher=Ccel.org |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref>
[[File:Pentecost The Church Window.jpg|thumb|150px|right|A stained glass window at [[St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church]] in Charleston, South Carolina which depicts the flame of fire upon the heads of the disciples]]
From the early days of Western Christianity, Pentecost became one of the days set aside to celebrate [[Baptism]]. In Northern Europe Pentecost was preferred even over Easter for this rite, as the temperatures in late spring might be supposed to be more conducive to outdoor [[immersion baptism|immersion]] as was then the practice. It is proposed that the term [[Whit Sunday]] derives from the custom of the newly baptized wearing white clothing, and from the white vestments worn by the clergy in [[Sarum Rite|English liturgical uses]]. The holiday was also one of the three days each year (along with [[Christmas]] and [[Easter]]) Roman Catholics were required to [[confession|confess]] and receive the [[sacrament]] of [[Holy Communion]] in order to remain in good church standing.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06278a.htm |title=CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Frequent Communion |publisher=Newadvent.org |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref> Holy Communion is likewise often a feature of the Protestant observance of Pentecost as well. It is one of the relatively few Sundays some [[Reformed]] denominations may offer the communion meal, and is one of the days of the year specially appointed among [[Moravian Church|Moravians]] for the celebration of their Love Feasts. [[Ordinations]] are celebrated across a wide array of Western denominations at Pentecost, or near to it. In some denominations, for example the [[Lutheran]] Church, even if an ordination or consecration of a [[deaconess]] is not celebrated on Pentecost, the [[liturgical color]] will invariably be red, and the theme of the service will be the Holy Spirit. And above all, Pentecost is a day for the [[Confirmation]] celebrations of young people. Flowers, the wearing of white robes, or white dresses recalling Baptism, rites such as the [[laying on of hands]], and vibrant singing play prominent roles on these joyous occasions, the blossoming of Spring forming an equal analogy with the blossoming of youth.
 
The typical image of Pentecost in the West is that of the [[Virgin Mary]] seated centrally and prominently among the disciples, with flames resting on the crowns of their heads. Occasionally parting clouds suggesting the action of the “mighty wind”,<ref name="bibleverse|Acts|2:2|KJV"/> rays of light, and/or the Dove, are also depicted. Of course, the Western iconographic style is less static and stylized than that of the East, and other very different representations have been produced, and in some cases have achieved great fame, such as the Pentecosts by [[Titian]], [[Giotto]] and [[el Greco]].
[[Paul of Tarsus|Paul]] already in the 1st century notes the importance of this festival to the [[early Christian]] communities. (See: {{bibleref2|Acts|20:16}} & {{bibleref2|Corinthians|16:8}}) Since the lifetime of some who may have been eye-whitnesses, annual celebrations of the descent of the Holy Spirit have been observed. Before the [[Second Vatican Council]] [[Whitmonday|Pentecost Monday]] as well was a [[Holy Day of Obligation]] during which the Catholic Church addressed the newly baptized and confirmed. Since that time however Pentecost Monday is no longer solemnized. Nevertheless it remains an official church festival in many Protestant churches, such as the (Lutheran) [[Church of Sweden]], the [[Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland]], and others. In the [[Greek Byzantine Catholic Church|Byzantine Catholic Rite]] Pentecost Monday is no longer a [[Holy Day of Obligation]], but rather a simple [[holy day]]. In the Roman Catholic Church, as at Easter, the [[Ranks of Catholic liturgical days|liturgical rank]] of Monday and Tuesday of Pentecost week is a Double of the First Class<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15614b.htm |title=Catholic Encyclopedia: Pentecost |publisher=Newadvent.org |date=1912-10-01 |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref> and across many Western denominations, Pentecost is celebrated with an [[octave]] culminating on [[Trinity Sunday]].
[[File:Duccio di Buoninsegna 018.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A typical Western image of the Pentecost. [[Duccio di Buoninsegna]] (1308) [[Tempera]] on wood.| A typical Western image of the Pentecost. [[Duccio di Buoninsegna]] (1308) [[Tempera]] on wood]]
 
Marking the festival’s importance, in several denominations, such as the Lutheran and [[United Methodist]] churches (and formerly in the Roman Catholic Church), all the Sundays from the holiday itself up until the next [[Advent]] in late November or December are designated the 2nd, 3rd, Nth, Sunday after Pentecost, etc. Throughout the year, in Roman Catholic piety, the Pentecost is the third of the [[Glorious Mysteries]] of the [[Rosary|Holy Rosary]], as well as being one of the [[Stations of the Resurrection]], or Via Lucis.
 
In [[Evangelicalism|Evangelical]] churches, where a lesser degree of emphasis on the [[liturgical year]] is generally placed, Pentecost may indeed be one of the greatest celebrations in the year. In many other cases though, Pentecost may be a holiday ignored in these churches. Perhaps ironically, this includes many [[Pentecostal]] congregations. Christians of these traditions may be surprised to learn of the significance assigned to the holiday by others, and in fact in many evangelical churches in the United States, secular [[Mother’s Day]] is more celebrated than the ancient and biblical feast of Pentecost.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.churchyear.net/pentecost.html |title=Pentecost: All About Pentecost (Whitsunday)! |publisher=Churchyear.net |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref> (This tends to be much less the case among evangelicals in countries where Pentecost is prominently celebrated, such as [[Germany]] or [[Romania]].) Nevertheless, today many evangelicals are discovering the liturgical calendar and observe Pentecost as a day to teach on the [[Gifts of the Holy Spirit]]. Meanwhile across denominational lines Pentecost is becoming an opportunity for Christians to honor the role of the Holy Spirit in their lives, and celebrate the birth of the church in an [[ecumenical]] context.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.themint.org.uk/yPhoto086_PentecostPicnic2009.html |title=Pentecost Picnic 2009 |publisher=Themint.org.uk |date= |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://monashcatholics.blogspot.com/2007/06/photos-of-ecumenical-pentecost.html |title=Catholics at Monash: Photos of Ecumenical Pentecost Celebrations |publisher=Monashcatholics.blogspot.com |date=2007-06-15 |accessdate=2010-05-17}}</ref> -->
 
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