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'''Botany Bay''' eller '''Botanybugten''' er en havbugt<ref name="roy" /> ud til det [[Tasmanske Hav]] i [[New South Wales]] i [[Australien]], 13 kilometer syd for centrum af [[Sydney]]. To floder løber ud i bugten: [[Georges River]] ved [[Taren Point, New South Wales|Taren Point]] og [[Cooks River]] ved [[Kyeemagh, New South Wales|Kyeemagh]]. Bugten har et areal på næsten 40 km<sup>2</sup>. Åbningen mod havet ligger mellem de to forstæder [[La Perouse, New South Wales|La Perouse]] og [[Kurnell, New South Wales|Kurnell]]. Det nordlige forbjerg ved bugtens åbning er [[Joseph Banks|Cape Banks]] og i syd hedder det ydre forbjerg [[Daniel Solander|Cape Solander]] og det indre [[Sutherland Point]]. Alle tre er navngivet efter medlemmer af [[James Cook|James Cooks]] ekspedition, der 29. april 1770 gik i land i Botany Bay, som de første europæere på den australske østkyst.
 
The total catchment area of the bay is approximately {{convert|55|km2|abbr=on}}. Til trods for at bugten er relativt lavvandet, fungerer den som Sydneys vigtigste fragthavn. Havnen ligger ved [[Port Botany (seaport)|Port Botany]], withi [[Portden operator|facilitiesnordøstlige managed]]del byaf [[Portbugten Authoritytæt of NewAustraliens Southstørste Wales|Sydney Ports Corporation]]. Two runways oflufthavn, [[Sydney Airport|Sydney Airport,]] extendsom intohar theto baylandingsbaner, asder dodelvist someer portanlagt facilitiesud i bugten. [[Botany Bay National Park]] isligger located onbegge thesider northernaf andåbningen southernmod headlands of the bay. The area surrounding the bay is generally managed by [[Roads and Maritime Services]]havet.
 
==Historie==
The land adjacent to Botany Bay was settled for many thousands of years by the [[Tharawal people|Tharawal]] and [[Eora]] peoples and their associated clans. On 29 April 1770, Botany Bay was the site of [[James Cook]]'s first landing of [[HMS Endeavour|HMS ''Endeavour'']] on the land mass of Australia, after his extensive navigation of [[New Zealand]]. Later the British planned Botany Bay as the site for a [[penal colony]]. Out of these plans came the first [[History of Australia (1788–1850)|European habitation of Australia]] at [[Sydney Cove]]. Although the penal settlement was almost immediately shifted to Sydney Cove, for some time in Britain [[penal transportation|transportation]] to "Botany Bay" was a [[metonym]] for transportation to any of the Australian penal settlements.
ArchaeologicalDer evidenceer fromarkæologiske thespor shoresefter ofen aboriginsk bosættelse ved Botany Bay hasfor yielded5.000 evidenceår ofsiden. anFør [[Aboriginalbriternes Australians|Aboriginal]]ankomst settlementvar datingområdet backomkring 5,000bugten years.beboet Theaf Aboriginalstammerne people[[Eora]] ofmod Sydneynord, were[[Tharawal]] knownmod assyd theog [[EoraDharug]], withmod subvest. Bidjigal-groupsklanen, derivedsom fromtilhørte theDharug languageseller theymuligvis spoke. The people livingEora, betweenboede themellem Cooks River and theog Georges River. were thede [[Bidjigal]]sydlige clan;bredder onboede theGweagal, southernsom shores of the bay were the [[Gweagal]]tilhørte clanTharawal,<ref>{{cite book |title=St. George Pictorial Memories: Rockdale, Kogarah, Hurstville |author=Lawrence, Joan |publisher=Kingsclear Books |year=1996 |location=Crows Nest, NSW |isbn=0-908272-45-6 |page=3}}</ref> whileog on thede northernnordlige shorebredder itboede wasKameygal-klanen, thesom [[Kameygal]]tilhørte clanEora.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/index.php/your-city/a-short-history-of-the-city-of-botany-bay |title=A Short History of the City of Botany Bay |year=2012 |publisher=City of Botany Bay |accessdate=7 September 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120716232946/http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/index.php/your-city/a-short-history-of-the-city-of-botany-bay |archivedate=16 July 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
 
==History==
 
===Aboriginal history===
Archaeological evidence from the shores of Botany Bay has yielded evidence of an [[Aboriginal Australians|Aboriginal]] settlement dating back 5,000 years. The Aboriginal people of Sydney were known as the [[Eora]], with sub-groups derived from the languages they spoke. The people living between the Cooks River and the Georges River were the [[Bidjigal]] clan; on the southern shores of the bay were the [[Gweagal]] clan,<ref>{{cite book |title=St. George Pictorial Memories: Rockdale, Kogarah, Hurstville |author=Lawrence, Joan |publisher=Kingsclear Books |year=1996 |location=Crows Nest, NSW |isbn=0-908272-45-6 |page=3}}</ref> while on the northern shore it was the [[Kameygal]] clan.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/index.php/your-city/a-short-history-of-the-city-of-botany-bay |title=A Short History of the City of Botany Bay |year=2012 |publisher=City of Botany Bay |accessdate=7 September 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120716232946/http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/index.php/your-city/a-short-history-of-the-city-of-botany-bay |archivedate=16 July 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
 
=== British history===
[[File:SLNSW 826105 Botany Bay New South Wales ca 1789 watercolour by Charles Gore.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.52|''Botany Bay'', 1788 watercolour by [[Charles Gore (artist)|Charles Gore]]]]
 
[[James Cook|LieutenantLøjtnant James Cook]] firstgik landedi atland søndag 29. april 1770 på Silver Beach ved [[Kurnell, New South Wales|Kurnell]], oni theden southernsydlige banksdel ofaf Botany Bay,. inCook whatsejlede ismed nowsit skib [[SilverHMS Beach (Kurnell)Endeavour|SilverHMS Beach''Endeavour'']], onfra Sundaysyd 29mod Aprilnord 1770,langs whenden navigatingaustralske hiskyst. wayDet upvar theførste eastgang, coasthan ofgik Australiai onland his shipøstkysten, [[HMSog Endeavour|HMSdet ''Endeavour'']].var Cook'sindledningen landing marked the beginning of [[Kingdom of Great BritainStorbritannien|BritainStorbritanniens]]'s interestinteresse infor AustraliaAustralien andog inen themulig eventualkolonisering [[colonisation]]af ofdet thisnye new "southern continent"kontinent.<ref>{{cite map |url=http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~24019~870064 |title=Entrance of Endeavour River in New South Wales. Botany Bay in New South Wales |publisher=State Library of Queensland |work=David Rumsey Historical Map Collection |accessdate=7 September 2012 |author1=Cook, James |author2=Hawkesworth, John |year=1773}}</ref> InitiallyTil theat namebegynde med blev navnet ''Stingrays Harbour'' was(Rokkehavnen) usedbrugt byaf Cook andog otherandre journalmedlemmer keepersaf onekspeditionen his expedition, forefter thede [[stingrayrokker]]s, de fangede theyi caughtbugten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.gnb.nsw.gov.au/place_naming/placename_search/extract?id=MnjLoesE|title=Extract – Geographical Names Board of NSW|last=Wales|first=Geographical Name Board of New South|website=gnb.nsw.gov.au|access-date=2016-11-07}}</ref> ThatNavnet nameblev wasogså alsobrugt recorded onet ankort Admiraltyudarbejdet chartaf det [[Admiralitetet|Britiske Admiralitet]].<ref name="Botany">Beaglehole (ed.) 1968, p. ccix</ref> Cook's logskriver fori sin log 6. Maymaj 1770 records: "The great quantity of these sort of fish found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of Stingrays Harbour". However, in the journal prepared later from his log, Cook wrote instead: (sic) "The great quantity of plants [[Joseph Banks|Mr. Banks]] and [[Daniel Solander|Dr. Solander]] found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of <s>Botanist</s> Botany Bay".{{refn|group=note|The strikethrough is in the Cook's original, reflecting a change of mind sometime after leaving the Bay in 1770}}<ref name="Botany"/>
 
Eighteen years later, in 1788, Governor [[Arthur Phillip]] sailed the armed tender [[HMS Supply (1759)|HMS ''Supply'']] into the bay on 18 January. [[First contact (anthropology)|First contact]] was made with the local [[Indigenous Australian|Indigenous people]], the [[Eora]], who seemed curious but suspicious of the newcomers. Two days later the remaining ships of the [[First Fleet]] arrived to found the planned [[penal colony]]. However, the land was quickly ruled unsuitable for settlement as there was insufficient fresh water; Phillip also believed the swampy foreshores would render any colony unhealthy as the bay was open and unprotected, the water too shallow to allow the ships to anchor close to the shore, and the soil was poor.<ref>Parker 2009, p.113</ref>
| accessdate = 24 November 2013
}}</ref> As such, Phillip decided instead to move to the excellent natural harbour of [[Port Jackson]] to the north.<ref>Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 15 May 1788, cited in Britten (ed.) 1978, pp. 121–123</ref>
 
 
Although the penal settlement was almost immediately shifted to Sydney Cove, for some time in Britain [[penal transportation|transportation]] to "Botany Bay" was a [[metonym]] for transportation to any of the Australian penal settlements.
 
 
 
On the morning of 24 January the [[France|French]] exploratory expedition of [[Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse]] was seen outside Botany Bay. On 26 January, the ''Supply'' left the bay to move up to Port Jackson and anchor in [[Sydney Cove]]. On the afternoon of 26 January, the remaining ships of First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove. In 1789, Captain [[John Hunter (Royal Navy officer)|John Hunter]] surveyed Botany Bay after returning from the Cape of Good Hope, trading for grain. The good supply of [[fresh water]] in the area led to the expansion of its population in the 19th century.
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