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Der er arkæologiske spor efter en aboriginsk bosættelse ved Botany Bay for 5.000 år siden. Før briternes ankomst var området omkring bugten beboet af stammerne [[Eora]] mod nord, [[Tharawal]] mod syd og [[Dharug]] mod vest. Bidjigal-klanen, som tilhørte Dharug eller muligvis Eora, boede mellem Cooks River og Georges River. På de sydlige bredder boede Gweagal, som tilhørte Tharawal,<ref>{{cite book |title=St. George Pictorial Memories: Rockdale, Kogarah, Hurstville |author=Lawrence, Joan |publisher=Kingsclear Books |year=1996 |location=Crows Nest, NSW |isbn=0-908272-45-6 |page=3}}</ref> og på de nordlige bredder boede Kameygal-klanen, som tilhørte Eora.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=A Short History of the City of Botany Bay |year=2012 |publisher=City of Botany Bay |accessdate=7. Septemberseptember 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=16. Julyjuli 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
=== British history===
[[File:SLNSW 826105 Botany Bay New South Wales ca 1789 watercolour by Charles Gore.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.52|''Botany Bay'', 1788 watercolour by [[Charles Gore (artist)|Charles Gore]]]]
[[James Cook|Løjtnant James Cook]] gik i land søndag 29. april 1770 på Silver Beach ved [[Kurnell, New South Wales|Kurnell]] i den sydlige del af Botany Bay. Cook sejlede med sit skib [[HMS Endeavour|HMS ''Endeavour'']] fra syd mod nord langs den australske kyst. Det var første gang, han gik i land på østkysten, og det var indledningen på [[Storbritannien|Storbritanniens]] interesse for Australien og en mulig kolonisering af det nye kontinent.<ref>{{cite map |url= |title=Entrance of Endeavour River in New South Wales. Botany Bay in New South Wales |publisher=State Library of Queensland |work=David Rumsey Historical Map Collection |accessdate=7. Septemberseptember 2012 |author1=Cook, James |author2=Hawkesworth, John |year=1773}}</ref> Til at begynde med blev navnet ''Stingrays Harbour'' (Rokkehavnen) brugt af Cook og andre medlemmer af ekspeditionen efter de [[rokker]], de fangede i bugten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Extract – Geographical Names Board of NSW|last=Wales|first=Geographical Name Board of New South||access-date=7. november 2016-11-07}}</ref> Navnet blev også brugt på et kort udarbejdet af det [[Admiralitetet|Britiske Admiralitet]].<ref name="Botany">Beaglehole (ed.) 1968, p. ccix</ref> Cook skriver i sin log 6. maj 1770: "The great quantity of these sort of fish found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of Stingrays Harbour". However, in the journal prepared later from his log, Cook wrote instead: (sic) "The great quantity of plants [[Joseph Banks|Mr. Banks]] and [[Daniel Solander|Dr. Solander]] found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of <s>Botanist</s> Botany Bay".{{refn|group=note|The strikethrough is in the Cook's original, reflecting a change of mind sometime after leaving the Bay in 1770}}<ref name="Botany"/>
Eighteen years later, in 1788, Governor [[Arthur Phillip]] sailed the armed tender [[HMS Supply (1759)|HMS ''Supply'']] into the bay on 18 January. [[First contact (anthropology)|First contact]] was made with the local [[Indigenous Australian|Indigenous people]], the [[Eora]], who seemed curious but suspicious of the newcomers. Two days later the remaining ships of the [[First Fleet]] arrived to found the planned [[penal colony]]. However, the land was quickly ruled unsuitable for settlement as there was insufficient fresh water; Phillip also believed the swampy foreshores would render any colony unhealthy as the bay was open and unprotected, the water too shallow to allow the ships to anchor close to the shore, and the soil was poor.<ref>Parker 2009, p.113</ref>
The first container terminal at Port Botany, east of the airport, was completed during the 1970s and is the largest [[container terminal]] in Sydney. A second container terminal was completed during the 1980s and bulk liquid storage facilities are located on the northern and southern edge of the bay. A third container terminal was completed in 2011.
The land around the headlands of the bay is protected by the [[National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales)|National Parks and Wildlife Service]] as [[Kamay Botany Bay National Park]]. On the northern side of the mouth of the bay is the historic site of La Perouse, and to the south is Kurnell. Despite its relative isolation, the southern shore of the bay is dominated by an unusual mixture of pristine national park and heavy industrial use that includes [[Kurnell Desalination Plant]], the [[Kurnell Terminal|Caltex Fuel Terminal]], sewer treatment, and historical [[sand mining]] facilities.<ref name=scma>{{cite web |title=Kurnell Peninsula: a guide to the plants, animals, ecology and landscapes |accessdate=7. Januaryjanuar 2013 |url= |publisher=Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority |year=2010}}</ref> On the southern side of the bay a section of water has been fenced off under the authority of the National Parks and Wildlife Service at [[Towra Point Nature Reserve|Towra Point]] for environmental conservation purposes.
The western shores of the bay feature many popular swimming beaches including [[Lady Robinsons Beach]] and are highly urbanised.
There are also a lot of bunkers around Botany Bay. The bunkers were built by the military during WWII and still remain. <ref>{{Cite web|url=,10157256627141024,10157256627216024,10157256627296024,10157256627376024%5D:photo_id.10157256627091024:story_location.5:story_attachment_style.album:view_time.1592916197:filter.h_nor&__tn__=*W-R|title=Old & Abandoned Australia Public Group &#124; Facebook||accessdate=28. Septemberseptember 2020}}</ref>
==Marine life==
Botany Bay has a diverse [[marine life|marine population]], and the area around its entrance is a popular area for [[scuba diving]]. In recent times,{{when|date=JanuaryJanuar 2013}} the Botany Bay Watch Project<ref>{{cite web|url= | |title=Botany Bay Watch Project |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=18. Julyjuli 2008 }}</ref> has begun with volunteers assisting to monitor and protect the Bay Catchment and its unique marine life.
The world's largest population of [[weedy sea dragon]] ever surveyed is found at the 'Steps' dive site, on the Kurnell side of the Botany Bay National Park. Weedy sea dragons are just one of hundreds of territorial marine creatures found within Botany Bay. The [[eastern blue groper]]<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Marine Blue Groper | |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=19. Julyjuli 2008 }}</ref> is the state fish of New South Wales; it is very tame and is commonly found following divers along the shoreline of Botany Bay.
==In popular culture==
{{unreferenced section|date=JulyJuli 2015}}
* Despite the move to [[Sydney Cove]], for many years the Australian penal colony would be referred to as "Botany Bay" in England, and in ballads such as "[[The Fields of Athenry]]," by [[Ireland|Irish]] songwriter [[Pete St. John]].
* A song named "[[Botany Bay (song)|Botany Bay]]" has been performed as a folk and music hall song since the 1890s, based on older tunes. It also refers to the penal colony.
* A song titled "Bound for Botany Bay" is featured on Irish singer-songwriter and guitarist [[John Doyle (musician)|John Doyle]]'s album Shadow and Light.
* In the 1941 historical novel ''Botany Bay'' by [[Charles Nordhoff]] and [[James Norman Hall]], the protagonist, after various adventures and misadventures in England, gets transported to Botany Bay. [[Botany Bay (film)|A movie based on the book]] starring Alan Ladd and James Mason was shot in 1953.
* The song "[[Jim Jones at Botany Bay]]" (aka "Jim Jones") is about a prisoner who is going to Botany Bay. The song has been recorded several times, including a well-known version by [[Bob Dylan]], and sung by [[Jennifer Jason Leigh]] in ''[[The Hateful Eight]]''.<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Blowing in, yet again |first=Larry |last=Schwartz |date=15. Aprilapril 2011 |access-date=6. Septemberseptember 2018 |newspaper=[[Sydney Morning Herald]] |publisher=[[FairFax Media]]}}</ref>
*SS ''Botany Bay'' was the name of the spaceship on which [[Khan Noonien Singh]] and his followers escaped from Earth in ''[[Star Trek: The Original Series]]'' and ''[[Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan]].''
* In the play and musical ''[[Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street]]'', Benjamin Barker, the man who would become Sweeney Todd, was transported to Botany Bay for life on a false charge by Judge Turpin.
* In the [[MMORPG]] [[Runescape]], Botany Bay is the name of a location in-game where players can view other players' accounts being penalized for using "bots", [[Macro (computer science)|computer macros]], to cheat.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Botany Bay |date=26. Septemberseptember 2012 |access-date=6. Septemberseptember 2018 |work=[[Runescape]] |publisher=[[Jagex Ltd.]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |url= |title=Runescape puts botters on trial in Botany Bay and lets players decide their fate |first=Tom |last=Senior |date=4. Maymaj 2016 |access-date=6. Septemberseptember 2018 |magazine=[[PC Gamer]] |publisher=[[Future US, Inc.]]}}</ref>
== See also ==
*{{cite book |title =Historical records of New South Wales. Vol. 1, part 2. Phillip, 1783–1792. | editor =Britton, Alex R. | month = | year =1978 | publisher =Lansdown Slattery & Co. | page =56 | url = | oclc=219911274}}
* {{cite book |first=George |last=Forster |trans-title=Neuholland und die brittische Colonie in Botany-Bay/New Holland and the British colony at Botany Bay |language=German |others=Robert J. King, translator |title=Allgemeines historisches Taschenbuch, oder, Abriss der merkwuridgsten neuen Welt Begebenheiten enthaltend fur 1787 |publisher=National Library of Australia |location=Canberra |year=2008}}
* {{cite book |title=Le texte fondateur de l'Australie, récit de voyage d'un capitaine de la First Fleet durant l'Expédition à Botany Bay |others=preface by Merle, d'Isabelle |year=2006 |author=Tench, Watkin |authorlink=Watkin Tench |language=French |editor=Anacharsis |isbn=2-914777-30-2 |page=320 |url= |access-date=24. Maymaj 2011 |archive-url= |archive-date=25. Novembernovember 2006 |url-status=dead |df=dmy-all }}
* {{cite book |title=[[s:The History of Botany-Bay|The History of Botany-Bay]] |date=1798 |publisher=T. Johnston |location=Falkirk}}
* [ NSW Environment & Heritage webpage]
* [ Irish Examiner article concerning penal colony]
* {{cite web | url = | title = Booralee fishing town | accessdate = 6. Octoberoktober 2015 | author = Joanne Sippel | date = 2013 | work=[[Dictionary of Sydney]]| publisher = Dictionary of Sydney Trust}}
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{{Bays of New South Wales |state=autocollapse}}
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