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|Navn = Botany Bay
|Billede = Sydney SPOT 1210.jpg
|Tekst = Luftfoto af det sydøstlige [[Sydney]] med Botany Bay. <br/>De to stykker land, der stikker ud i bugten er landingsbaner for [[Sydney Airport]].
De to stykker land, der stikker ud i bugten er landingsbaner for [[Sydney Airport]].
|Land = New South Wales, Australien
|Kommuner =
=== British history===
[[File:Midhsipman Isaac Smith.jpg|thumb|left|[[Isaac Smith (Royal Navy officer)|Isaac Smith]] became the first European to set foot on eastern Australian soil, Cook telling him "Jump out, Isaac" as the ship's boat touched the shore at Botany Bay.]]
[[File:SLNSW 826105 Botany Bay New South Wales ca 1789 watercolour by Charles Gore.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.52|''Botany Bay'', 1788, watercolourakvarel byaf [[Charles Gore (artist)|Charles Gore]]]]
 
[[James Cook|Løjtnant James Cook]] gik i land søndag 29. april 1770 på Silver Beach ved [[Kurnell, New South Wales|Kurnell]] i den sydlige del af Botany Bay. Cook sejlede med sit skib [[HMS Endeavour|HMS ''Endeavour'']] fra syd mod nord langs den australske kyst. Det var første gang, han gik i land på østkysten, og det var indledningen på [[Storbritannien|Storbritanniens]] interesse for Australien og en mulig kolonisering af det nye kontinent.<ref>{{cite map |url=http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~24019~870064 |title=Entrance of Endeavour River in New South Wales. Botany Bay in New South Wales |publisher=State Library of Queensland |work=David Rumsey Historical Map Collection |accessdate=7. september 2012 |author1=Cook, James |author2=Hawkesworth, John |year=1773}}</ref> Til at begynde med blev navnet ''Stingrays Harbour'' (Rokkehavnen) brugt af Cook og andre medlemmer af ekspeditionen efter de [[rokker]], de fangede i bugten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.gnb.nsw.gov.au/place_naming/placename_search/extract?id=MnjLoesE|title=Extract – Geographical Names Board of NSW|last=Wales|first=Geographical Name Board of New South|website=gnb.nsw.gov.au|access-date=7. november 2016}}</ref> Navnet blev også senere brugt på et kort udarbejdet af det [[Admiralitetet|Britiske Admiralitet]].<ref name="Botany">Beaglehole (ed.) 1968, p. ccix</ref> Cook skriver i sin log 6. maj 1770: "TheDen greatstore quantitymængde ofaf thesedisse sortfisk ofinspirerede fishmig foundtil inat thisgive placeden occasionednavnet myStingrays givingHarbour". itAlligevel theskrev nameCook ofsenere Stingraysi Harbour".den Howeverjournal, inhan theskrev journal preparedbasis lateraf from hissin log, Cook wrote instead: (sic) "TheDen greatstore quantitymængde of plantsplanter [[Joseph Banks|Mr. Banks]] andog [[Daniel Solander|Dr. Solander]] foundfandt in thisdette placested occasionedinspirerede mymig givingtil itat thegive nameden ofnavnet <s>Botanist</s> Botany Bay".{{refn|group=note|The strikethrough is in the Cook's original, reflecting a change of mind sometime after leaving the Bay in 1770}}<ref name="Botany"/> (Botanikbugten).
 
EighteenBotanikeren yearsJoseph laterBanks blev senere en vigtig fortaler for, inat Storbritannien skulle grundlægge en koloni i Botany Bay. Det blev næsten en realitet i 1788, Governorda [[Arthur Phillip]] sailed the armed tendermed [[HMS Supply (1759)|HMS ''Supply'']] intosejlede theind bayi onbugten 18. Januaryjanuar. [[FirstHan contacthavde (anthropology)|Firstkontakt contact]]med wasde madeindfødte with the localfra [[Indigenous AustralianEora|Indigenous people]], the [[Eora-stammen]], whosom seemedvirkede curiousnysgerrige butmen suspiciousmistænksomme ofover for thede newcomersnytilkomne. TwoTo daysdage latersenere thestødte remainingde shipsresterende ofskibe thefra den [[FirstFørste FleetFlåde]] arrivedtil, tofor foundat thegrundlægge plannedden [[penalplanlagte colony]]straffekoloni. HoweverDe vurderede dog, theat landbugten wasvar quicklyuegnet ruledtil unsuitablebosættelse, forda settlementder asikke therevar wasadgang insufficienttil freshtilstrækkeligt water;drikkevand. Phillip alsovar believedogså thebange swampyfor, foreshoresat wouldsumpene renderved anybugten colonyville unhealthygive aset theusundt bayklima. wasBugten openvar andogså unprotectedåben og ubeskyttet, theligesom waterden toovar shallowfor tolavvandet allowtil theat shipsskibe tokunne anchorankre closeop totæt the shorekysten, andog theendelig soilmente washan, at jorden var for poordårlig.<ref>Parker 2009, p.113</ref>
 
The area was studded with enormously strong trees. When the convicts tried to cut them down, their tools broke and the tree trunks had to be blasted out of the ground with gunpowder. The primitive huts built for the officers and officials quickly collapsed in rainstorms. Crucially, Phillip worried that his fledgling colony was exposed to attack from [[Aboriginal Australian|Aborigines]] or foreign powers. AlthoughSelvom hishan initialhavde instructionsinstrukser wereom toat establishgrundlægge theen colonykoloni ati Botany Bay, hehavde washan authorisedautorisation til at toetablere establishden theet colonyandet elsewherested ifom necessarynødvendigt.<ref name="Museum of Australian Democracy">{{cite web
| title = Governor Phillip's Instructions 25 April 1787 (UK)
| url = http://foundingdocs.gov.au/item-sdid-68.html
| publisher = Museum of Australian Democracy
| accessdate = 24 November 2013
}}</ref> As such, Phillip decidedbesluttede insteadderfor toat moveflytte totil theden excellentfremragende natural harbour ofnaturhavn [[Port Jackson]] tofå kilometer længere themod northnord.<ref>Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 15 May 1788, cited in Britten (ed.) 1978, pp. 121–123</ref>
 
 
[[File:La Perouse 3.JPG|thumb|Monument at [[La Perouse, New South Wales|La Perouse]].]]
 
[[Sydney Airport]], Australia'sAustraliens busiesttravleste airportlufthavn, sitsligger onud thetil northwesternden sidenordvestlige ofdel af Botany Bay. SomeTo ofaf itsdens runwayslandingsbaner gogår outud intoi the baybugten. AfterEfter [[World2. Warverdenskrig II]] the mouthblev ofudmundingen theaf [[Cooks River]] wasflyttet movedto twokilometer kilometresmod westvest tofor makeat wayøre forplads til theen airportudvidelse extensionaf lufthavnen. Land wasblev reclaimedindvundet fromfra thebugten bayfor toat extendudvide itsden firstførste north–southnord-syd runwaylandingsbane andog tofor buildat abygge second,en ny parallel, runwaylandingsbane.
 
Den første [[containerterminal]] ved Port Botany, øst for lufthavnen, blev færdiggjort i 1979 og er Sydneys største. Endnu en containerterminal blev bygget i 1980'erne. Der er tankfaciliteter både i den nordlige og sydlige del af bugten . En tredje containerterminal åbnede i 2011.
The first container terminal at Port Botany, east of the airport, was completed during the 1970s and is the largest [[container terminal]] in Sydney. A second container terminal was completed during the 1980s and bulk liquid storage facilities are located on the northern and southern edge of the bay. A third container terminal was completed in 2011.
 
The land around the headlands of the bay is protected by the [[National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales)|National Parks and Wildlife Service]] as [[Kamay Botany Bay National Park]]. On the northern side of the mouth of the bay is the historic site of La Perouse, and to the south is Kurnell. Despite its relative isolation, the southern shore of the bay is dominateddomineret byaf anen unusualusædvanlig mixtureblanding ofaf pristineuberørt nationalnatur parkog andtung heavyindustri industrialsom use that includesafsaltningsanlægget [[Kurnell Desalination Plant]], the [[Kurnell Terminal|Caltex Fuel Terminal]], sewerspildevandsanlæg treatment,og and historical [[sand mining]]nedlagte facilitiessandgravningsanlæg.<ref name=scma>{{cite web |title=Kurnell Peninsula: a guide to the plants, animals, ecology and landscapes |accessdate=7. januar 2013 |url=http://sydney.cma.nsw.gov.au/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=51&func=download&id=549&chk=5115e53218b24f9cc44e7a81fdff0449&no_html=1 |publisher=Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority |year=2010}}</ref> On the southern side of the bay a section of water has been fenced off under the authority of the National Parks and Wildlife Service at [[Towra Point Nature Reserve|Towra Point]] for environmental conservation purposes.
 
TheVestkysten westernaf shoresbugten ofhar theflere baystrande, feature many popular swimming beaches includingbl.a. [[Lady Robinsons Beach]], andog areer highlytæt urbanisedbebygget.
 
ThereDer areer alsoogså aen lotrække of[[Bunker|bunkere]] bunkers aroundomkring Botany Bay. De Theblev bunkersbygget wereaf builtmilitæret byunder the military[[2. duringverdenskrig]] WWIIog andstår stillder remainstadig. <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://mbasic.facebook.com/groups/795587077160341?view=permalink&id=3193105024075189&refid=7&_ft_=qid.6841522973855662507:mf_story_key.-5327898481503178466:group_id.795587077160341:top_level_post_id.3193105024075189:content_owner_id_new.536211023:src.22:photo_attachments_list.%5B10157256627091024,10157256627141024,10157256627216024,10157256627296024,10157256627376024%5D:photo_id.10157256627091024:story_location.5:story_attachment_style.album:view_time.1592916197:filter.h_nor&__tn__=*W-R|title=Old & Abandoned Australia Public Group &#124; Facebook|website=mbasic.facebook.com|accessdate=28. september 2020}}</ref>
 
==Marine life==
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