Forskel mellem versioner af "Bruger:Metalindustrien/Kasse5"

110.819 bytes fjernet ,  for 2 måneder siden
Tømmer siden for indhold
Tag: Tilbagerullet
(Tømmer siden for indhold)
Tags: Sidetømning Manuel tilbagerulning
* [[:en:Elizabeth II]]
* [ trans]
{{Infobox royalty
|image = Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg
|alt = photograph of the Queen in her eighty-ninth year
|caption = Elizabeth in 2015
|succession =
{{Collapsible list|title=[[Queen of the United Kingdom]] and the other [[Commonwealth realm]]s|titlestyle=line-height:normal;|framestyle=padding:0 0.6em;
{{Aligned table|fullwidth=on|class=nowrap|colstyle=padding:0;|rowstyle=font-weight:normal;
|'''[[Monarchy of Canada|Canada]]''' | 1952–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Australia|Australia]]''' | 1952–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of New Zealand|New Zealand]]''' | 1952–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Jamaica|Jamaica]]''' | 1962–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Barbados|Barbados]]''' | 1966–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of the Bahamas|The Bahamas]]''' | 1973–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Grenada|Grenada]]''' | 1974–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Papua New Guinea|Papua New Guinea]]''' | 1975–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Solomon Islands|Solomon Islands]]''' | 1978–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Tuvalu|Tuvalu]]''' | 1978–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Saint Lucia|St Lucia]]''' | 1979–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|St Vincent and the<br>Grenadines]]''' | 1979–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Belize|Belize]]''' | 1981–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda|Antigua and Barbuda]]''' | 1981–''present''
|'''[[Monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis|St Kitts and Nevis]]''' | 1983–''present''
|[[Dominion of Pakistan|Pakistan]] | 1952–1956
|[[Monarchy of South Africa|South Africa]] | 1952–1961
|[[Dominion of Ceylon|Ceylon]] | 1952–1972
|[[Queen of Ghana|Ghana]] | 1957–1960
|[[Queen of Nigeria|Nigeria]] | 1960–1963
|[[Queen of Sierra Leone|Sierra Leone]] | 1961–1971
|[[Queen of Tanganyika|Tanganyika]] | 1961–1962
|[[Queen of Trinidad and Tobago|Trinidad and Tobago]] | 1962–1976
|[[Queen of Uganda|Uganda]] | 1962–1963
|[[Queen of Kenya|Kenya]] | 1963–1964
|[[Queen of Malawi|Malawi]] | 1964–1966
|[[Queen of Malta|Malta]] | 1964–1974
|[[Queen of the Gambia|The Gambia]] | 1965–1970
|[[Queen of Guyana|Guyana]] | 1966–1970
|[[Queen of Mauritius|Mauritius]] | 1968–1992
|[[Dominion of Fiji|Fiji]] | 1970–1987
| reign = 6 February 1952{{sndash}}present
| cor-type = [[Coronation of Elizabeth II|Coronation]]
| coronation = 2 June 1953
| predecessor = [[George VI]]
| pre-type = [[List of British monarchs|Predecessor]]
| suc-type = [[Heir&nbsp;apparent]]
| successor = [[Charles, Prince of Wales]]
| reg-type = {{Longitem|Prime<br>ministers}}
| regent = [[List of prime ministers of Elizabeth II|''See list'']]
| birth_name = Princess Elizabeth of York
| birth_date = {{Birth date and age|df=yes|1926|4|21}}
| birth_place = [[Mayfair]], [[London]], England
| spouse = {{Marriage|[[Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh]]|20 November 1947|9 April 2021|reason=d}}
| issue-link = #Issue
| issue = {{Plainlist|
* [[Charles, Prince of Wales]]
* [[Anne, Princess Royal]]
* [[Prince Andrew, Duke of York]]
* [[Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex]]
| full name = Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor
| house = [[House of Windsor|Windsor]]
| father = George VI
| mother = [[Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon]]
| signature = Elizabeth II signature 1952.svg
{{British Royal Family}}
<!--NOTE: Please do not change the lead sentence without consulting the discussion page first. This lead has been discussed and there is general consensus that this is the best one for now. Thanks.-->
'''Elizabeth II''' (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926<!--NOTE: Do not say she has died without a reliable source.-->){{efn|name=birthday|The [[Queen's Official Birthday]] is not the same day as her actual one.}} is <!--NOTE: DO NOT PLACE "the" here. "Queen" is an uncountable noun, so it is "Queen", not "the Queen". Please also read the consensus note above before making edits.--> [[Queen of the United Kingdom]] and 15 other [[Commonwealth realm]]s.{{efn|name=constitutional|As a constitutional monarch, the Queen is head of state, but her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules.<ref>{{citation|title=Britain's monarchy |work=The Guardian |date=16 May 2002 |url=}}</ref>}}
Elizabeth was born in [[Mayfair]], [[London]], as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later [[King George VI]] and [[Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother|Queen Elizabeth]]). Her father ascended the throne on the [[Edward VIII abdication crisis|abdication]] of his brother [[King Edward VIII]] in 1936, from which time she was the [[heir presumptive]]. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties [[Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II|during the Second World War]], serving in the [[Auxiliary Territorial Service]]. In 1947, she [[Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten|married]] [[Philip, Duke of Edinburgh]], a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she had four children: [[Charles, Prince of Wales]]; [[Anne, Princess Royal]]; [[Prince Andrew, Duke of York]]; and [[Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex]].
When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth – then 25 years old – became [[head of the Commonwealth]] and [[queen regnant]] of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the [[United Kingdom]], [[Canada]], [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], [[Union of South Africa|South Africa]], [[Dominion of Pakistan|Pakistan]], and [[Dominion of Ceylon|Ceylon]]. She has reigned as a [[constitutional monarch]] through major political changes, such as [[devolution in the United Kingdom]], [[accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities]], [[Brexit]], Canadian [[patriation]], and the [[decolonisation of Africa]]. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of [[States headed by Elizabeth II|her realms]] varied as territories gained independence, and as realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed [[Sri Lanka]]), became republics. Her many historic visits and meetings include a [[State visit of Elizabeth II to the Republic of Ireland|state visit to the Republic of Ireland]] and visits to or from five [[pope]]s. Significant events have included her [[Coronation of Elizabeth II|coronation in 1953]] and the celebrations of her [[Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Silver]], [[Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Golden]], and [[Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Diamond]] [[Jubilee]]s in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a [[Sapphire Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Sapphire Jubilee]]. In 2021, after 73 years of marriage, her husband [[Death and funeral of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|Prince Philip died]] at the age of 99.
She is the [[List of British monarchs by longevity|longest-lived]] and [[List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign|longest-reigning British monarch]]. She is the [[List of longest-reigning monarchs|longest-serving female head of state]] in world history, and the world's [[List of oldest living state leaders|oldest living monarch]], [[List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign|longest-reigning current monarch]], and [[Lists of state leaders by age|oldest]] and [[List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office|longest-serving current head of state]].
Elizabeth has occasionally faced [[Republicanism in the United Kingdom|republican]] sentiments and press criticism of the [[British royal family|royal family]], in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her {{lang|la|[[Annus horribilis#Elizabeth II|annus horribilis]]}} in 1992, and the [[death of Diana, Princess of Wales|death in 1997]] of her former daughter-in-law [[Diana, Princess of Wales]]. However, support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom has been and remains consistently high, as does her personal popularity.<!--e.g. Polls cited in "Public perception and character" section below: Ipsos MORI (2006 and 2012); Populus Ltd (2007); BBC (2007)-->
== Early life ==
[[File:Princess Elizabeth on TIME Magazine, April 29, 1929.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair|On the [[List of covers of Time magazine (1920s)#1929|cover]] of [[Time (magazine)|''Time'']], April 1929]]
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor was born at 02:40 ([[GMT]]) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, [[King George V]]. Her father, the Duke of York (later [[King George VI]]), was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York (later [[Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother]]), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the [[Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne|Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne]]. She was delivered by [[Caesarean section]] at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 [[Bruton Street]], [[Mayfair]].<ref>Bradford, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 103; Marr, p. 76; Pimlott, pp. 2–3; Lacey, pp. 75–76; Roberts, p. 74</ref> She was [[Baptism|baptised]] by the [[Anglicanism|Anglican]] [[Archbishop of York]], [[Cosmo Gordon Lang]], in the private chapel of [[Buckingham Palace]] on 29 May,<ref>Hoey, p. 40</ref>{{efn|name=baptism|Her godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; [[Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn]] (her paternal great-granduncle); [[Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles]] (her paternal aunt); and [[Mary Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone|Lady Elphinstone]] (her maternal aunt).<ref>Brandreth, p. 103; Hoey, p. 40</ref>}} and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after [[Alexandra of Denmark|George V's mother]], who had died six months earlier; and Mary after [[Mary of Teck|her paternal grandmother]].<ref>Brandreth, p. 103</ref> Called "Lilibet" by her close family,<ref>Pimlott, p. 12</ref> based on what she called herself at first,<ref>Williamson, p. 205</ref> she was cherished by her grandfather, George V, and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.<ref>Lacey, p. 56; Nicolson, p. 433; Pimlott, pp. 14–16</ref>
[[File:Philip Alexius de Laszlo-Princess Elizabeth of York, Currently Queen Elizabeth II of England,1933.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hair|Portrait by [[Philip de László]], 1933]]
Elizabeth's only sibling, [[Princess Margaret]], was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their [[governess]], [[Marion Crawford]].<ref>Crawford, p. 26; Pimlott, p. 20; Shawcross, p. 21</ref> Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature, and music.<ref>Brandreth, p. 124; Lacey, pp. 62–63; Pimlott, pp. 24, 69</ref> Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled ''[[The Little Princesses]]'' in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 108–110; Lacey, pp. 159–161; Pimlott, pp. 20, 163</ref> The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 108–110</ref> Others echoed such observations: [[Winston Churchill]] described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."<ref>Brandreth, p. 105; Lacey, p. 81; Shawcross, pp. 21–22</ref> Her cousin [[Margaret Rhodes]] described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".<ref>Brandreth, pp. 105–106</ref>
== Heir presumptive ==
During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the [[line of succession to the British throne]], behind her uncle [[Edward VIII|Edward]] and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young and likely to marry and have children of his own, who would precede Elizabeth in the line of succession.<ref>Bond, p. 8; Lacey, p. 76; Pimlott, p. 3</ref> When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second in line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, [[Edward VIII abdication crisis|Edward abdicated]], after his proposed marriage to divorced [[socialite]] [[Wallis Simpson]] provoked a constitutional crisis.<ref>Lacey, pp. 97–98</ref> Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, taking the [[regnal name]] [[George VI]]. Since Elizabeth had no brothers, she became [[heir presumptive]]. If her parents had had a later son, he would have been [[heir apparent]] and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by [[male-preference primogeniture]] at the time.<ref>Marr, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott, pp. 71–73</ref>
Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from [[Henry Marten (educator)|Henry Marten]], [[List of Provosts of Eton College|Vice-Provost]] of [[Eton College]],<ref>Brandreth, p. 124; Crawford, p. 85; Lacey, p. 112; Marr, p. 88; Pimlott, p. 51; Shawcross, p. 25</ref> and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.<ref name=Edu>{{citation |title=Her Majesty The Queen: Early life and education |publisher=Royal Household |url= |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=29 December 2015}}</ref> A [[Girl Guides]] company, the [[Girlguiding London and South East England#1st Buckingham Palace Company|1st Buckingham Palace Company]], was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age.<ref>Marr, p. 84; Pimlott, p. 47</ref> Later, she was enrolled as a [[Ranger (Girl Guide)|Sea Ranger]].<ref name=Edu />
In 1939, Elizabeth's parents [[1939 royal tour of Canada|toured Canada]] and the United States. As in 1927, when they had [[Royal visits to Australia#1927|toured Australia]] and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours.<ref name=p54>Pimlott, p. 54</ref> She "looked tearful" as her parents departed.<ref name=p55>Pimlott, p. 55</ref> They corresponded regularly,<ref name=p55 /> and she and her parents made the first royal [[transatlantic telephone]] call on 18 May.<ref name=p54 />
=== Second World War ===
[[File:Hrh Princess Elizabeth in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, April 1945 TR2832.jpg|thumb|right|In [[Auxiliary Territorial Service]] uniform, {{nowrap|April 1945}}]]
In September 1939, Britain entered the [[Second World War]]. [[Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham|Lord Hailsham]]<ref>{{citation |author=Warwick, Christopher |date=2002 |title=Princess Margaret: A Life of Contrasts |location=London |publisher=Carlton Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-233-05106-2 |page=102}}</ref> suggested that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should be [[Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II|evacuated]] to Canada to avoid the frequent [[Aerial bombing of cities|aerial bombing]]. This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=21 December 2015}}</ref> The princesses stayed at [[Balmoral Castle]], Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to [[Sandringham House]], Norfolk.<ref>Crawford, pp. 104–114; Pimlott, pp. 56–57</ref> From February to May 1940, they lived at [[Royal Lodge]], Windsor, until moving to [[Windsor Castle]], where they lived for most of the next five years.<ref>Crawford, pp. 114–119; Pimlott, p. 57</ref> At Windsor, the princesses staged [[pantomime]]s at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.<ref>Crawford, pp. 137–141</ref> In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the [[BBC]]'s ''[[Children's Hour]]'', addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.<ref name=CH>{{citation |url= |title=Children's Hour: Princess Elizabeth |publisher=BBC |date=13 October 1940 |access-date=22 July 2009|archive-url=|url-status=live |archive-date=27 November 2019}}</ref> She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers, and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our own share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well."<ref name=CH />
In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the [[Grenadier Guards]], of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Early public life |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=20 April 2010 |archive-url= |archive-date=28 March 2010|url-status=dead}}</ref> As she approached her 18th birthday, parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five [[Counsellors of State]] in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.<ref>Pimlott, p. 71</ref> In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary [[Auxiliary Territorial Service#Ranks|second subaltern]] in the [[Auxiliary Territorial Service]] with the [[service number]] of 230873.<ref>{{London Gazette| issue=36973| date=6 March 1945|page=1315 |supp=y |mode=cs2}}</ref> She trained as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of [[captain (British Army and Royal Marines)|captain]] at the time) five months later.<ref>Bradford, p. 45; Lacey, p. 148; Marr, p. 100; Pimlott, p. 75</ref><ref>{{London Gazette| issue=37205| date=31 July 1945|page=3972 |supp=y |mode=cs2}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |title=The World War II Auto Mechanic in This Photo Is Queen Elizabeth II. Here's the Story Behind the Picture |work=Time |first=Lily |last=Rothman |date=25 May 2018}}</ref>
[[File:Special Film Project 186 - Buckingham Palace 2.jpg|thumb|Elizabeth (far left) on the balcony of [[Buckingham Palace]] with her family and [[Winston Churchill]] on 8 May 1945, [[Victory in Europe Day]]]]
At the end of the war in Europe, on [[Victory in Europe Day]], Elizabeth and Margaret mingled anonymously with the celebratory crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised&nbsp;... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down [[Whitehall]], all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."<ref>Bond, p. 10; Pimlott, p. 79</ref>
During the war, plans were drawn up to quell [[Welsh nationalism]] by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of [[Caernarfon Castle]] or a patron of [[Urdd Gobaith Cymru]] (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with [[conscientious objector]]s in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Royal plans to beat nationalism |publisher=BBC News |date=8 March 2005 |access-date=15 June 2010}}</ref> Welsh politicians suggested she be made [[Princess of Wales]] on her 18th birthday. [[Home Secretary]], [[Herbert Morrison]] supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 71–73</ref> In 1946, she was inducted into the Welsh [[Gorsedd]] of Bards at the [[National Eisteddfod of Wales]].<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Gorsedd of the Bards |publisher=National Museum of Wales |access-date=17 December 2009 |archive-url= |archive-date=18 May 2014}}</ref>
Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour in 1947, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the [[British Commonwealth]] on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."<ref>{{citation |url= |title=A speech by the Queen on her 21st birthday |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=20 April 1947}}</ref>
=== Marriage ===
{{Main|Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten}}
Elizabeth met her future husband, [[Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark]], in 1934 and 1937.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 132–139; Lacey, pp. 124–125; Pimlott, p. 86</ref> They were [[Cousin#Cousin chart|second cousins once removed]] through [[King Christian IX of Denmark]] and third cousins through [[Queen Victoria]]. After another meeting at the [[Britannia Royal Naval College|Royal Naval College]] in [[Dartmouth, Devon|Dartmouth]] in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, and they began to exchange letters.<ref>Bond, p. 10; Brandreth, pp. 132–136, 166–169; Lacey, pp. 119, 126, 135</ref> She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.<ref>Heald, p. 77</ref>
[[File:Elizabeth II and Philip.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Elizabeth and [[Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|Philip]], 1950]]
The engagement was not without controversy; Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the [[Royal Navy]] throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with [[Nazi]] links.<ref>{{citation |author=Edwards, Phil |url= |title=The Real Prince Philip |publisher=[[Channel 4]] |date=31 October 2000 |access-date=23 September 2009 |archive-url= |archive-date=9 February 2010}}</ref> Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."<ref>Crawford, p. 180</ref> Later biographies reported Elizabeth's mother had reservations about the union initially, and teased Philip as "[[List of terms used for Germans#Hun (pejorative)|The Hun]]".<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Philip, the one constant through her life |access-date=23 September 2009 |last=Davies |first=Caroline |date=20 April 2006 |work=[[The Daily Telegraph]] |location=London}}</ref><ref>Brandreth, p. 314</ref> In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer [[Tim Heald]] that Philip was "an English gentleman".<ref>Heald, p. xviii</ref>
Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from [[Greek Orthodoxy]] to [[Anglicanism]], and adopted the style ''Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten'', taking [[Mountbatten|the surname of his mother's British family]].<ref>Hoey, pp. 55–56; Pimlott, pp. 101, 137</ref> Just before the wedding, he was created [[Duke of Edinburgh]] and granted the style ''His Royal Highness''.<ref>{{London Gazette| issue=38128|page=5495| date=21 November 1947 |mode=cs2}}</ref> Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at [[Westminster Abbey]]. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world.<ref name="news1">{{citation |url= |title=60 Diamond Wedding anniversary facts |publisher=Royal Household |date=18 November 2007 |access-date=20 June 2010 |archive-url= |archive-date=3 December 2010 }}</ref> Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required [[Rationing in the United Kingdom|ration coupons]] to buy the material for [[Wedding dress of Princess Elizabeth|her gown]], which was designed by [[Norman Hartnell]].<ref>Hoey, p. 58; Pimlott, pp. 133–134</ref> In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.<ref>Hoey, p. 59; Petropoulos, p. 363</ref> The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either.<ref>Bradford, p. 61</ref>
[[File:Prinsen, baby, Charles, prins van Wales, Elisabeth prinses, Bestanddeelnr 903-1660 (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|Princess Elizabeth with her son [[Prince Charles]], 1948]]
Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, [[Prince Charles]], on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued [[letters patent]] allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.<ref>Letters Patent, 22 October 1948; Hoey, pp. 69–70; Pimlott, pp. 155–156</ref> A second child, [[Princess Anne]], was born in 1950.<ref>Pimlott, p. 163</ref>
Following their wedding, the couple leased [[Windlesham Moor]], near [[Windsor Castle]], until July 1949,<ref name=news1 /> when they took up residence at [[Clarence House]] in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British [[Crown Colony of Malta]] as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of [[Gwardamanġa]], at [[Villa Guardamangia]], the rented home of Philip's uncle, [[Lord Mountbatten]]. The children remained in Britain.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 226–238; Pimlott, pp. 145, 159–163, 167</ref>
== Reign ==
=== Accession and coronation ===
{{Main|Coronation of Elizabeth II}}
[[File:Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II Couronnement de la Reine Elizabeth II.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Coronation of Elizabeth II]], 1953]]
During 1951, George VI's health declined, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President [[Harry S. Truman]] in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, [[Martin Charteris]], carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 240–241; Lacey, p. 166; Pimlott, pp. 169–172</ref> In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, [[Sagana Lodge]], after a night spent at [[Treetops Hotel]], when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new queen.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 245–247; Lacey, p. 166; Pimlott, pp. 173–176; Shawcross, p. 16</ref> Martin Charteris asked her to choose a [[regnal name]]; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course";<ref>Bousfield and Toffoli, p. 72; Charteris quoted in Pimlott, p. 179 and Shawcross, p. 17</ref> thus she was called Elizabeth II, which annoyed many Scots, as she was the first Elizabeth to rule in [[Scotland]].<ref>{{citation|title=Britain Since 1945|chapter=Scotland: Cultural Base and Economic Catalysts|last=Mitchell|first=James|editor-last=Hollowell|editor-first=Jonathan|year=2003|doi=10.1002/9780470758328.ch5|page=113|isbn=9780470758328}}</ref> She was [[Proclamation of accession of Elizabeth II|proclaimed queen]] throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 178–179</ref> She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into [[Buckingham Palace]].<ref>Pimlott, pp. 186–187</ref>
With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the [[royal house]] would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. The Duke's uncle, Lord Mountbatten, advocated the name ''House of Mountbatten''. Philip suggested ''House of Edinburgh'', after his ducal title.<ref>{{citation |url= |work= The Telegraph |location = London |title=Emma Soames: As Churchills we're proud to do our duty |last=Soames |first=Emma |date=1 June 2012|access-date=12 March 2019}}</ref> The British Prime Minister, [[Winston Churchill]], and Elizabeth's grandmother, [[Mary of Teck|Queen Mary]], favoured the retention of the [[House of Windsor]], and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that ''Windsor'' would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."<ref>Bradford, p. 80; Brandreth, pp. 253–254; Lacey, pp. 172–173; Pimlott, pp. 183–185</ref> In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname ''[[Mountbatten-Windsor]]'' was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.<ref>{{London Gazette| issue=41948 |supp=y|page=1003| date=5 February 1960 |mode=cs2}}</ref>
Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry [[Peter Townsend (RAF officer)|Peter Townsend]], a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."<ref>Brandreth, pp. 269–271</ref> Senior politicians were against the match and the [[Church of England]] did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a [[civil marriage]], she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.<ref>Brandreth, pp. 269–271; Lacey, pp. 193–194; Pimlott, pp. 201, 236–238</ref> Margaret decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.<ref>Bond, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 271; Lacey, p. 194; Pimlott, p. 238; Shawcross, p. 146</ref>
Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the [[Coronation of Elizabeth II|coronation on 2 June 1953]] went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died.<ref>Bradford, p. 82</ref> The ceremony in [[Westminster Abbey]], with the exception of the [[anointing]] and [[Eucharist|communion]], was televised for the first time.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=50 facts about The Queen's Coronation |date=25 May 2003 |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016}}</ref>{{efn|name=television|Television coverage of the coronation was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of [[Television licensing in the United Kingdom|television licences in the United Kingdom]] doubled to 3&nbsp;million,<ref>Pimlott, p. 207</ref> and many of the more than 20&nbsp;million British viewers watched television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours.<ref>Briggs, pp. 420 ff.; Pimlott, p. 207; Roberts, p. 82</ref> In North America, just under 100 million viewers watched recorded broadcasts.<ref>Lacey, p. 182</ref>}} [[Coronation gown of Elizabeth II|Elizabeth's coronation gown]] was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.<ref>Lacey, p. 190; Pimlott, pp. 247–248</ref>
=== Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth ===
{{further|Commonwealth realm#From the accession of Elizabeth II}}
[[File:British Empire in February 1952.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Elizabeth's realms (light red and pink) and their territories and [[protectorate]]s (dark red) at the beginning of her reign in 1952.]]
From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the [[British Empire]] continued its transformation into the [[Commonwealth of Nations]].<ref>Marr, p. 272</ref> By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.<ref>Pimlott, p. 182</ref> In 1953, the Queen and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than {{convert|40,000|mi|km|abbr=off}} by land, sea and air.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=The Commonwealth: Gifts to the Queen |publisher=Royal Collection Trust |access-date=20 February 2016}}</ref> She became the first reigning [[monarch of Australia]] and [[Monarchy of New Zealand|New Zealand]] to visit those nations.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Australia: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=13 October 2015}}<br />{{citation |url= |title=New Zealand: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=22 December 2015}}<br />Marr, p. 126</ref> During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.<ref>Brandreth, p. 278; Marr, p. 126; Pimlott, p. 224; Shawcross, p. 59</ref> Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of [[List of state visits made by Elizabeth II|state visits]] to other countries and [[List of Commonwealth visits made by Elizabeth II|tours of the Commonwealth]]; she is the most widely travelled head of state.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen's Diamond Jubilee: Sixty years of royal tours |first=Sophie |last=Campbell |newspaper=The Telegraph |date=11 May 2012 |access-date=20 February 2016}}</ref>
In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir [[Anthony Eden]] and [[Guy Mollet]], discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the [[Treaty of Rome]], which established the [[European Economic Community]], the precursor to the [[European Union]].<ref>{{citation |url= |title=When Britain and France nearly married |publisher=BBC News |date=15 January 2007 |access-date=14 December 2009 |first=Mike |last=Thomson}}</ref> In November 1956, Britain and France [[Suez Crisis|invaded Egypt]] in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the [[Suez Canal]]. [[Lord Mountbatten]] claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.<ref>Pimlott, p. 255; Roberts, p. 84</ref>
[[File:Queen Elizabeth II and the Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth Nations, at Windsor Castle (1960 Commonwealth Prime Minister's Conference).jpg|thumb|left|alt=A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume.|Elizabeth II and Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 [[Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference|Commonwealth Conference]]]]
The absence of a formal mechanism within the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative Party]] for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to [[Kissing hands|commission to form a government]]. Eden recommended she consult [[Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury|Lord Salisbury]], the [[Lord President of the Council]]. Lord Salisbury and [[Lord Kilmuir]], the [[Lord Chancellor]], consulted the [[British Cabinet]], Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench [[1922 Committee]], resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: [[Harold Macmillan]].<ref>Marr, pp. 175–176; Pimlott, pp. 256–260; Roberts, p. 84</ref>
The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led, in 1957, to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,<ref>Lacey, p. 199; Shawcross, p. 75</ref> [[John Grigg (writer)|Lord Altrincham]] accused her of being "out of touch".<ref>Lord Altrincham in ''[[National Review (London)|National Review]]'' quoted by Brandreth, p. 374 and Roberts, p. 83</ref> Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.<ref>Brandreth, p. 374; Pimlott, pp. 280–281; Shawcross, p. 76</ref> Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint [[Alec Douglas-Home|the Earl of Home]] as prime minister, advice she followed.<ref name=r84>Hardman, p. 22; Pimlott, pp. 324–335; Roberts, p. 84</ref> The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister.<ref name=r84 /> In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement.<ref>Roberts, p. 84</ref>
{{Wikisource|Queen Elizabeth II's Address to the United Nations General Assembly}}
In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the [[United Nations General Assembly]] on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the [[23rd Canadian Parliament]], becoming the first [[monarch of Canada]] to open a parliamentary session.<ref name=Canada>{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Canada: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=12 February 2012 |archive-url= |archive-date=4 May 2010}}</ref> Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.<ref name=Canada /><ref>Bradford, p. 114</ref> In 1961, she toured [[Cyprus]], India, Pakistan, [[Kingdom of Nepal|Nepal]], and [[Imperial State of Iran|Iran]].<ref>Pimlott, p. 303; Shawcross, p. 83</ref> On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, [[List of heads of state of Ghana|President]] [[Kwame Nkrumah]], who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins.<ref name=mac /> Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through&nbsp;... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as&nbsp;... a film star&nbsp;... She has indeed '[[Speech to the Troops at Tilbury|the heart and stomach of a man]]'&nbsp;... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."<ref name=mac>Macmillan, pp. 466–472</ref> Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the [[Quebec sovereignty movement|Quebec separatist movement]] were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.<ref>{{citation |last=Speaight |first=Robert |title=Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat, Governor General: A Biography |publisher=William Collins, Sons and Co. Ltd. |year=1970 |location=London |isbn=978-0-00-262252-3 |url=}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Dubois |first=Paul |title=Demonstrations Mar Quebec Events Saturday |newspaper=[[The Gazette (Montreal)|The Gazette]] |page=1 |date=12 October 1964 |url=,2340498 |access-date=6 March 2010}}</ref> No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.<ref>Bousfield, p. 139</ref>
Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes [[Prince Andrew, Duke of York|Andrew]] and [[Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex|Edward]], in 1959 and 1963, mark the only times she has not performed the [[State Opening of Parliament|State Opening of the British parliament]] during her reign.<ref>{{citation |last=Dymond |first=Glenn |date=5 March 2010 |url= |title=Ceremonial in the House of Lords |publisher=House of Lords Library |page=12 |access-date=5 June 2010}}</ref> In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.<ref>Hardman, pp. 213–214</ref>
=== Acceleration of decolonisation ===
[[File:Elizabeth II in Queensland, Australia, 1970.jpg|thumb|left|In [[Queensland]], Australia, 1970]]
The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the [[decolonisation]] of Africa and the [[Caribbean]]. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the [[Rhodesia]]n Prime Minister, [[Ian Smith]], in opposition to moves towards majority rule, [[Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence|unilaterally declared independence]] while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth. Although the Queen formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.<ref>Bond, p. 66; Pimlott, pp. 345–354</ref> As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.<ref>Bradford, pp. 123, 154, 176; Pimlott, pp. 301, 315–316, 415–417</ref>
In February 1974, the British Prime Minister, [[Edward Heath]], advised the Queen to call a [[February 1974 United Kingdom general election|general election]] in the middle of her tour of the [[Austronesia]]n [[Pacific Rim]], requiring her to fly back to Britain.<ref>Bradford, p. 181; Pimlott, p. 418</ref> The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberals]]. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the [[Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)|Leader of the Opposition]], [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour's]] [[Harold Wilson]], to form a government.<ref>Bradford, p. 181; Marr, p. 256; Pimlott, p. 419; Shawcross, pp. 109–110</ref>
A year later, at the height of the [[1975 Australian constitutional crisis]], the Australian Prime Minister, [[Gough Whitlam]], was dismissed from his post by [[Governor-General of Australia|Governor-General]] Sir [[John Kerr (governor-general)|John Kerr]], after the Opposition-controlled [[Australian Senate|Senate]] rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.<ref name=Aus>Bond, p. 96; Marr, p. 257; Pimlott, p. 427; Shawcross, p. 110</ref> As Whitlam had a majority in the [[House of Representatives (Australia)|House of Representatives]], [[Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives|Speaker]] [[Gordon Scholes]] appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the [[Constitution of Australia]] for the Governor-General.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 428–429</ref> The crisis fuelled [[Australian republicanism]].<ref name=Aus />
=== Silver Jubilee ===
[[File:Jimmy Carter with Queen Elizabeth - NARA - 174724.jpg|thumb|[[3rd G7 summit|Leaders of the G7 states]], members of the royal family and Elizabeth (centre), London, 1977]]
In 1977, Elizabeth marked the [[Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Silver Jubilee of her accession]]. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with [[List of events during the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II|her associated national and Commonwealth tours]]. The celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband, [[Lord Snowdon]].<ref>Pimlott, p. 449</ref> In 1978, the Queen endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, [[Nicolae Ceaușescu]], and his wife, [[Elena Ceaușescu|Elena]],<ref>Hardman, p. 137; Roberts, pp. 88–89; Shawcross, p. 178</ref> though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".<ref>Elizabeth to her staff, quoted in Shawcross, p. 178</ref> The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of [[Anthony Blunt]], former [[Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures]], as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the [[Provisional Irish Republican Army]].<ref>Pimlott, pp. 336–337, 470–471; Roberts, pp. 88–89</ref>
According to [[Paul Martin Sr.]], by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" [[Pierre Trudeau]], the [[Canadian prime minister]].<ref name=Post /> [[Tony Benn]] said the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing".<ref name=Post>{{citation |last=Heinricks |first=Geoff |title=Trudeau: A drawer monarchist |work=[[National Post]] |location=Toronto |date=29 September 2000 |page=B12}}</ref> Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various [[Canadian royal symbols]] during his term of office.<ref name=Post /> In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the [[patriation]] of the [[Canadian constitution]] found the Queen "better informed&nbsp;... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".<ref name=Post /> She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.<ref name=Post /> Patriation removed the role of the [[British parliament]] from the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private".<ref>Trudeau, p. 313</ref>
=== 1980s ===
During the 1981 [[Trooping the Colour]] ceremony, six weeks before the [[wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer]], six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down [[The Mall, London]], on her horse, [[Burmese (horse)|Burmese]]. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, [[Marcus Sarjeant]], was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen's 'fantasy assassin' jailed |publisher=BBC News |access-date=21 June 2010 |date=14 September 1981}}</ref> The Queen's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.<ref>Lacey, p. 281; Pimlott, pp. 476–477; Shawcross, p. 192</ref>
Months later, in October, the Queen was the subject of another attack while on a visit to [[Dunedin]], New Zealand. [[New Zealand Security Intelligence Service]] documents, declassified in 2018, revealed that 17-year-old [[Christopher John Lewis]] fired a shot with a [[.22 rifle]] from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Intelligence documents confirm assassination attempt on Queen Elizabeth in New Zealand |work=[[The Sydney Morning Herald]] |first=Hamish |last=McNeilly |date=1 March 2018 |access-date=1 March 2018}}</ref> Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or [[treason]], and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting the country with [[Diana, Princess of Wales|Diana]] and their son [[Prince William]].<ref>{{citation |url= |title='Damn&nbsp;... I missed': the incredible story of the day the Queen was nearly shot |work=[[The Guardian]] |first=Eleanor |last=Ainge Roy |date=13 January 2018 |access-date=1 March 2018}}</ref>
From April to September 1982, the Queen's son, Prince Andrew, served with British forces in the [[Falklands War]], for which she reportedly felt anxiety<ref>Bond, p. 115; Pimlott, p. 487</ref> and pride.<ref>Pimlott, p. 487; Shawcross, p. 127</ref> On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, [[Michael Fagan incident|Michael Fagan]], in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.<ref>Lacey, pp. 297–298; Pimlott, p. 491</ref> After hosting US President [[Ronald Reagan]] at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting [[Rancho del Cielo|his California ranch]] in 1983, the Queen was angered when his administration ordered the [[United States invasion of Grenada|invasion of Grenada]], one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.<ref>Bond, p. 188; Pimlott, p. 497</ref>
[[File:ElizabethIItroopingcolour crop.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse|Elizabeth riding [[Burmese (horse)|Burmese]] at the 1986 [[Trooping the Colour]] ceremony]]
Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 488–490</ref> As [[Kelvin MacKenzie]], editor of ''[[The Sun (United Kingdom)|The Sun]]'', told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."<ref>Pimlott, p. 521</ref> Newspaper editor [[Donald Trelford]] wrote in ''[[The Observer]]'' of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of&nbsp;... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in ''[[The Sunday Times]]'' of 20 July 1986, that the Queen was worried that [[Margaret Thatcher]]'s [[Thatcherism#economicposition|economic policies]] fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, [[1981 England riots|a series of riots]], the violence of a [[UK miners' strike (1984–85)|miners' strike]], and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the [[apartheid]] regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide [[Michael Shea (diplomat)|Michael Shea]] and [[Commonwealth Secretary-General]] [[Shridath Ramphal]], but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 503–515; see also Neil, pp. 195–207 and Shawcross, pp. 129–132</ref> Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the [[Social Democratic Party (UK)|Social Democratic Party]]—Thatcher's political opponents.<ref>Thatcher to [[Brian Walden]] quoted in Neil, p. 207; [[Andrew Neil]] quoted in [[Woodrow Wyatt]]'s diary of 26 October 1990</ref> Thatcher's biographer, [[John Campbell (biographer)|John Campbell]], claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".<ref>Campbell, p. 467</ref> Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen,<ref>Thatcher, p. 309</ref> and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the [[Order of Merit]] and the [[Order of the Garter]]—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by [[John Major]].<ref>Roberts, p. 101; Shawcross, p. 139</ref> [[Brian Mulroney]], Canadian prime minister between 1984 and 1993, said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.<ref name=Geddes>{{citation |last=Geddes |first=John |title=The day she descended into the fray |journal=[[Maclean's]] |edition=Special Commemorative Edition: The Diamond Jubilee: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years |year=2012 |page=72}}</ref><ref name=MacQueen>{{citation |last1=MacQueen |first1=Ken |last2=Treble |first2=Patricia |title=The Jewel in the Crown |journal=Maclean's |edition=Special Commemorative Edition: The Diamond Jubilee: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years |year=2012 |pages=43–44}}</ref>
By the end of the 1980s, the Queen had become the target of satire.<ref>Lacey, pp. 293–294; Pimlott, p. 541</ref> The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show ''[[It's a Royal Knockout]]'' in 1987 was ridiculed.<ref>Hardman, p. 81; Lacey, p. 307; Pimlott, pp. 522–526</ref> In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive [[Meech Lake Accord|constitutional amendments]], prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.<ref name=Geddes /> The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in [[1987 Fijian coups d'état|a military coup]]. As [[monarch of Fiji]], Elizabeth supported the attempts of [[Governor-General of Fiji|Governor-General]] Ratu Sir [[Penaia Ganilau]] to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader [[Sitiveni Rabuka]] deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 515–516</ref>
=== 1990s ===
In 1991, in the wake of coalition victory in the [[Gulf War]], the Queen became the first British monarch to address a [[Joint session of the United States Congress|joint meeting]] of the [[United States Congress]].<ref>Pimlott, p. 538</ref>
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 199-1992-089-19Acropped.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose|Philip and Elizabeth in Germany, {{nowrap|October 1992}}]]
In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark her [[Ruby Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Ruby Jubilee]] on the throne, Elizabeth called 1992 her ''[[annus horribilis]]'' (''horrible year'').<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Annus horribilis speech |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=24 November 1992}}</ref> Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the Queen's private wealth – which were contradicted by the Palace – and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.<ref>Pimlott, pp. 519–534</ref> In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, and his wife, [[Sarah, Duchess of York|Sarah]], separated; in April, her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain [[Mark Phillips]];<ref>Lacey, p. 319; Marr, p. 315; Pimlott, pp. 550–551</ref> during a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in [[Dresden]] threw eggs at her;<ref>{{citation |last=Stanglin |first=Doug |title=German study concludes 25,000 died in Allied bombing of Dresden |url= |work=[[USA Today]] |date=18 March 2010 |access-date=19 March 2010}}</ref> and, in November, [[1992 Windsor Castle fire|a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle]], one of her official residences. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.<ref>Brandreth, p. 377; Pimlott, pp. 558–559; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 204</ref> In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".<ref>Brandreth, p. 377</ref> Two days later, Prime Minister [[John Major]] announced reforms to the royal finances planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying [[income tax]] from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the [[civil list]].<ref>Bradford, p. 229; Lacey, pp. 325–326; Pimlott, pp. 559–561</ref> In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.<ref>Bradford, p. 226; Hardman, p. 96; Lacey, p. 328; Pimlott, p. 561</ref> The year ended with a lawsuit, as the Queen sued ''[[The Sun (United Kingdom)|The Sun]]'' newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her [[Royal Christmas Message|annual Christmas message]] two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.<ref>Pimlott, p. 562</ref>
In the years to follow, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.<ref>Brandreth, p. 356; Pimlott, pp. 572–577; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 168</ref> Even though support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism was still a minority viewpoint, and the Queen herself had high approval ratings.<ref>MORI poll for ''[[The Independent]]'' newspaper, March 1996, quoted in Pimlott, p. 578 and {{citation |last=O'Sullivan |first=Jack |date=5 March 1996 |url= |title=Watch out, the Roundheads are back |work=[[The Independent]] |access-date=17 September 2011}}</ref> Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions.<ref>Pimlott, p. 578</ref> In consultation with her husband and the Prime Minister, John Major, as well as the [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], [[George Carey]], and her private secretary, [[Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes|Robert Fellowes]], she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying a divorce was desirable.<ref>Brandreth, p. 357; Pimlott, p. 577</ref>
In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in [[Death of Diana, Princess of Wales|a car crash in Paris]]. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at [[Balmoral Castle|Balmoral]]. Diana's two sons by Charles – Princes [[Prince William, Duke of Cambridge|William]] and [[Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex|Harry]] – wanted to attend church and so the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh took them that morning.<ref>Brandreth, p. 358; Hardman, p. 101; Pimlott, p. 610</ref> Afterwards, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,<ref>Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Marr, p. 338; Pimlott, p. 615</ref> but the royal family's silence and seclusion, and the failure to fly a flag at [[half-mast]] over Buckingham Palace, caused public dismay.<ref name=MacQueen /><ref>Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Lacey, pp. 6–7; Pimlott, p. 616; Roberts, p. 98; Shawcross, p. 8</ref> Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to return to London and do a [[Addresses to the nation by Elizabeth II|live television broadcast]] on 5 September, the day before [[Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales|Diana's funeral]].<ref>Brandreth, pp. 358–359; Lacey, pp. 8–9; Pimlott, pp. 621–622</ref> In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.<ref name="b&b">Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 359; Lacey, pp. 13–15; Pimlott, pp. 623–624</ref> As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.<ref name="b&b" />
In October 1997, Elizabeth and Philip made a state visit to India, which included a visit to the site of the [[Jallianwala Bagh massacre]] to pay her respects.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Rediff on the NeT: Queen visits Jallianwalla Bagh|}}</ref> There were demands for her to apologise for the action of British troops 78 years earlier.<ref>{{cite news|title=In India, Queen Bows Her Head Over a Massacre in 1919|work=The New York Times|date=15 October 1997|url=|access-date=12 February 2013|first=John F.|last=Burns}}</ref> In November of that year, the Queen and her husband held a reception at [[Banqueting House]] to mark their golden wedding anniversary.<ref name="G-Wedding-Anniversary">{{citation |url= |title=A speech by The Queen on her Golden Wedding Anniversary |publisher=The Royal Household |date=20 November 1997 |access-date=10 February 2017}}</ref> She made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".<ref name="G-Wedding-Anniversary" />
=== Golden Jubilee ===
[[File:Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Greeting [[NASA]] employees at the [[Goddard Space Flight Center]], [[Maryland]], May 2007]]
In 2002, Elizabeth marked her [[Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Golden Jubilee]]. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.<ref>Bond, p. 156; Bradford, pp. 248–249; Marr, pp. 349–350</ref> She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the [[King's House, Jamaica|King's House]], the [[official residence]] of the [[Governor-General of Jamaica|governor-general]], into darkness.<ref>Brandreth, p. 31</ref> As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,<ref>Bond, pp. 166–167</ref> and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had expected.<ref>Bond, p. 157</ref>
Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 the Queen had [[keyhole surgery]] on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new [[Emirates Stadium]] because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen cancels visit due to injury |publisher=BBC News |date=26 October 2006 |access-date=8 December 2009}}</ref>
In May 2007, ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'', citing unnamed sources, reported the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of the British prime minister, [[Tony Blair]], that she was concerned the [[British Armed Forces]] were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.<ref>{{citation |url= |last=Alderson |first=Andrew |work=The Telegraph |title=Revealed: Queen's dismay at Blair legacy |date=28 May 2007 |access-date=31 May 2010}}</ref> She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to [[Northern Ireland peace process|achieve peace]] in [[Northern Ireland]].<ref>{{citation |url= |last=Alderson |first=Andrew |work=The Telegraph |title=Tony and Her Majesty: an uneasy relationship |date=27 May 2007 |access-date=31 May 2010}}</ref> She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen celebrates diamond wedding |date=19 November 2007|access-date=10 February 2017 |publisher=BBC News}}</ref> On 20 March 2008, at the [[Church of Ireland]] [[St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh (Church of Ireland)|St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh]], the Queen attended the first [[Royal Maundy|Maundy service]] held outside England and Wales.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Historic first for Maundy service |publisher=BBC News |date=20 March 2008 |access-date=12 October 2008}}</ref>
=== Diamond Jubilee and longevity ===
Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.<ref name=UN>{{citation |title=A speech by the Queen to the United Nations General Assembly |date=6 July 2010 |url= |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016}}</ref> The UN Secretary General, [[Ban Ki-moon]], introduced her as "an anchor for our age".<ref name=BBCUN>{{citation |url= |title=Queen addresses UN General Assembly in New York |publisher=BBC News |date=7 July 2010 |access-date=7 July 2010}}</ref> During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the [[September 11 attacks]]<!--Use common name-->.<ref name=BBCUN /> The Queen's 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th visit to the country since 1954.<ref>{{citation |title=Royal tour of Australia: The Queen ends visit with traditional 'Aussie barbie' |url= |work=The Daily Telegraph |date=29 October 2011 |archive-url=|archive-date=30 October 2011|url-status=dead|access-date=30 October 2011}}</ref> By invitation of the Irish President, [[Mary McAleese]], she made the first [[State visit of Elizabeth II to the Republic of Ireland|state visit to the Republic of Ireland]] by a British monarch in May 2011.<ref>Bradford, p. 253</ref>
[[File:Day 194 - West Midlands Police - Royal Diamond Jubilee Visit (7555521830).jpg|thumb|Visiting [[Birmingham]] in {{nowrap|July 2012}} as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour]]
The Queen's [[2012 Diamond Jubilee]] marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. In a message released on [[Accession Day]], Elizabeth wrote:{{quote|In this special year, as I dedicate myself anew to your service, I hope we will all be reminded of the power of togetherness and the convening strength of family, friendship and good neighbourliness&nbsp;... I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances that have been made since 1952 and to look forward to the future with clear head and warm heart.<ref>{{citation |url= |date=6 February 2012 |title=The Queen's Diamond Jubilee message |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016}}</ref>}}
She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Prince Harry pays tribute to the Queen in Jamaica |date=7 March 2012 |publisher=BBC News |access-date=31 May 2012}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |title=Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to Undertake a Royal Tour of Canada in 2012 |date=14 December 2011 |publisher=Office of the Governor General of Canada |access-date=31 May 2012}}</ref> On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Event News |publisher=The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons |access-date=28 April 2016}}</ref> In November, the Queen and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary (65th).<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Duke of Edinburgh celebrate 65th wedding anniversary |work=The Daily Telegraph |date=19 November 2012 |access-date=10 February 2017 |first=Gordon |last=Rayner}}</ref> On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime [[Cabinet of the United Kingdom|Cabinet meeting]] since [[George III]] in 1781.<ref>{{citation |title=UK to name part of Antarctica Queen Elizabeth Land |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=18 December 2012 |access-date=9 June 2019}}</ref>
The Queen, who opened the [[1976 Summer Olympics]] in Montreal, also opened the [[2012 Summer Olympics]] and [[2012 Summer Paralympics|Paralympics]] in London, making her the first [[List of people who have opened the Olympic Games|head of state to open]] two Olympic Games in two countries.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium Announces Broadcast Details for London 2012 Opening Ceremony, Friday |agency=PR Newswire |date=24 July 2012 |access-date=22 March 2015 |archive-url= |archive-date=2 April 2015}}</ref> For the London Olympics, she played herself in [[Happy & Glorious|a short film]] as part of the [[2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony|opening ceremony]], alongside [[Daniel Craig]] as [[James Bond]].<ref>{{citation |last=Brown |first=Nicholas |date=27 July 2012 |url= |title=How James Bond whisked the Queen to the Olympics |publisher=BBC News |access-date=27 July 2012}}</ref> On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary [[BAFTA]] for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable [[Bond girl]] yet" at the award ceremony.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen honoured with Bafta award for film and TV support |date=4 April 2013 |publisher=BBC News |access-date=7 April 2013}}</ref>
On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth was admitted to [[King Edward VII's Hospital]] as a precaution after developing symptoms of [[gastroenteritis]]. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day.<ref>{{citation |title=Queen leaves hospital after stomach bug |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=4 March 2013 |access-date=4 March 2013}}</ref> A week later, she signed the new [[Charter of the Commonwealth]].<ref>{{citation |title=Recovering Queen signs Commonwealth charter |url= |access-date=23 October 2016 |publisher=BBC News |date=11 March 2013}}</ref> Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial [[Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting]] for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles.<ref>{{citation |title=Queen to miss Commonwealth meeting |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=7 May 2013 |access-date=7 May 2013}}</ref> She underwent [[cataract surgery]] in May 2018.<ref>{{citation |last=Collier |first=Hatty |date=8 June 2018 |url= |title=The Queen undergoes eye surgery to remove cataract |publisher=[[yahoo!]] |access-date=19 March 2021}}</ref> In March 2019, she opted to give up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months earlier.<ref>{{citation |title=Queen slams brakes on driving in public |url= |work=The Times |date=31 March 2019 |access-date=31 March 2019}}</ref>
[[File:Elizabeth II at the Queen's Birthday Party (2018).jpg|thumb|[[The Queen's Birthday Party]], 2018]]
The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, [[Queen Victoria]], to become the [[List of British monarchs by longevity|longest-lived British monarch]] on 21 December 2007, and the [[List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign#Overall|longest-reigning British monarch]] and [[List of longest-reigning monarchs|longest-reigning queen regnant]] and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Elizabeth Set to Beat Victoria's Record as Longest Reigning Monarch in British History |work=[[HuffPost]] |date=6 September 2014 |access-date=28 September 2014}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |first=Shrikant |last=Modh |title=The Longest Reigning Monarch Queen Elizabeth II |work=Philately News |date=11 September 2015 |access-date=20 November 2017| archive-url=| archive-date=1 December 2017}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |title=Enthralling 'Audience' puts Britain's queen in room with politicians |work=Chicago Sun-Times |date=24 August 2017 |access-date=20 November 2017}}</ref> She became the oldest current monarch after [[Abdullah of Saudi Arabia|King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia]] died on 23 January 2015.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth II is now world's oldest monarch |date=24 January 2015 |newspaper=The Hindu |access-date=20 November 2017}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen becomes world's oldest monarch following death of King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia |date=23 January 2015 |work=The Daily Telegraph |access-date=20 November 2017 |last1=Rayner |first1=Gordon}}</ref> She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the [[List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office|longest-serving current head of state]] following the death of [[Bhumibol Adulyadej|King Bhumibol]] of Thailand on 13 October 2016,<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88 |date=13 October 2016 |publisher=BBC News|access-date=13 October 2016}}</ref><ref>{{citation |author=PA |url= |title=Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies |publisher=AOL (UK) |date=13 October 2016 |access-date=13 October 2016}}</ref> and the [[Lists of state leaders by age|oldest current head of state]] on the resignation of [[Robert Mugabe]] on 21 November 2017.<ref>{{citation |first=Charlie |last=Proctor |url= |title=BREAKING: The Queen becomes the world's oldest living Head of State following Mugabe resignation |date=21 November 2017 |work=Royal Central |access-date=21 November 2017}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth II will be the world's oldest head of state if Robert Mugabe is toppled |date=14 November 2017 | |access-date=20 November 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=15 November 2017}}</ref> On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a [[Sapphire Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Sapphire Jubilee]],<ref>{{citation |last=Rayner |first=Gordon |url= |title=The Blue Sapphire Jubilee: Queen will not celebrate 65th anniversary but instead sit in 'quiet contemplation' remembering father's death |newspaper=The Telegraph |date=29 January 2017 |access-date=3 February 2017}}</ref> and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Prince Philip portraits released to mark 70th anniversary |date=20 November 2017 |newspaper=The Guardian |access-date=20 November 2017 |agency=Press Association}}</ref> Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017.<ref>{{citation |last=Bilefsky |first=Dan |url= |title=Prince Philip Makes His Last Solo Appearance, After 65 Years in the Public Eye |newspaper=The New York Times |date=2 August 2017 |access-date=4 August 2017}}</ref> After 73 years of marriage, he died on 9 April 2021, after which she became the first British monarch to reign as a widow or widower since [[Queen Victoria]].<ref>{{citation |author=<!--Staff writer(s)/no by-line.--> |title=Prince Philip: After over 70 years by her side, the Queen faces a future without her 'strength and stay' |url= |work=ITV |location= |date=9 April 2021 |access-date=9 April 2021}}</ref> She remarked in private that his death "left a huge void".<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Prince Philip: The Queen says his death has 'left a huge void' - Duke of York|date=11 April 2021|website=BBC News}}</ref>
The Queen's [[Platinum Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Platinum Jubilee]] is planned for 2022,<ref>{{citation |title=Queen's Platinum Jubilee to include extra bank holiday|url=|website=BBC|date=12 November 2020}}</ref> and she would surpass [[Louis XIV]] of [[Kingdom of France|France]] as the [[List of longest-reigning monarchs|longest-reigning monarch]] of a sovereign state in verified world history on 27 May 2024.<ref>{{citation |url=|title=Queen Elizabeth II is about to become Britain's longest reigning monarch, so here are some charts|work=The New Statesman|first1=Jonn|last1=Elledge|date=9 September 2015|access-date=16 January 2021}}</ref> She does not intend to [[abdicate]],<ref>Brandreth, pp. 370–371; Marr, p. 395</ref> though Prince Charles began to take on more of her duties when she entered her 90s and began carrying out fewer public engagements.<ref>{{citation |last1=Mansey |first1=Kate |last2=Leake |first2=Jonathan |last3=Hellen |first3=Nicholas |url= |title=Queen and Charles start to 'job-share' |work=[[The Sunday Times]] |date=19 January 2014 |access-date=20 January 2014}}<br />Marr, p. 395</ref> On 20 April 2018, the government leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations announced that she will be succeeded by Charles as head of the Commonwealth. The Queen stated it was her "sincere wish" that Charles would follow her in the role.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Charles to be next Commonwealth head |date=20 April 2018 |publisher=BBC News|access-date=21 April 2018}}</ref> Plans for the Queen's own death and funeral, codenamed [[Operation London Bridge]], have been prepared by British government and media organisations since the 1960s.<ref>{{citation |url= |last=Knight |first=Sam |title=Operation London Bridge: the secret plan for the days after the Queen's death |date=16 March 2017 |newspaper=The Guardian |access-date=17 March 2017}}</ref>
== Public perception and character ==
{{Main|Personality and image of Elizabeth II}}
Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. As a [[constitutional monarch]], she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum.<ref>However, occasionally claims are made about her political opinions. For example after the [[2014 Scottish independence referendum]], the then Prime Minister, [[David Cameron]], claimed that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome ({{citation |last=Dominiczak |first=Peter |title=David Cameron: I'm extremely sorry for saying Queen 'purred' over Scottish Independence vote |newspaper=[[The Daily Telegraph]] |date=24 September 2014 |url=}})</ref> She does have a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and takes her [[Coronation Oath|coronation oath]] seriously.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen 'will do her job for life' |publisher=BBC News |date=19 April 2006 |access-date=4 February 2007}}<br />Shawcross, pp. 194–195</ref> Aside from her [[Monarchy of the United Kingdom#Religious role|official religious role]] as [[Supreme Governor of the Church of England|Supreme Governor]] of the [[State religion|established]] [[Church of England]], she is a member of that church and also of the national [[Church of Scotland]].<ref>{{citation |url= |title=How we are organised |publisher=Church of Scotland |access-date=4 August 2011}}</ref> She has demonstrated support for [[Interfaith dialogue|inter-faith]] relations and has met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: [[Pope Pius XII|Pius XII]], [[Pope John XXIII|John XXIII]], [[Pope John Paul II|John Paul II]], [[Pope Benedict XVI|Benedict XVI]], and [[Pope Francis|Francis]].<ref>{{citation |title=Queen meets Pope Francis at the Vatican |url= |access-date=28 March 2017 |publisher=BBC News |date=3 April 2014}}</ref> A personal note about her faith often features in her annual [[Christmas Message]] broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:
{{quote|To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Christmas Broadcast 2000 |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=25 December 2000}}<br />Shawcross, pp. 236–237</ref>}}
[[File:President Ronald Reagan riding horses with Queen Elizabeth II during visit to Windsor Castle.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan on black horses. He bare-headed; she in a headscarf; both in tweeds, jodhpurs and riding boots.|The Queen and [[Ronald Reagan|President Reagan]] riding at Windsor, {{nowrap|June 1982}}]]
She is [[patron]] of over 600 organisations and charities.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=About The Patron's Lunch |publisher=The Patron's Lunch |access-date=28 April 2016 |date=5 September 2014}}</ref> The [[Charities Aid Foundation]] estimated that Elizabeth has helped raised over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign.<ref>{{citation |last1=Hodge |first1=Kate |title=The Queen has done more for charity than any other monarch in history |url= |access-date=25 February 2021 |publisher=The Guardian |date=11 June 2012}}</ref> Her main leisure interests include [[equestrianism]] and dogs, especially her [[Pembroke Welsh Corgi]]s.<ref>{{citation |title=80 facts about The Queen |publisher=Royal Household |url= |access-date=20 June 2010 |archive-url= |archive-date=21 March 2009}}</ref> Her lifelong [[Royal corgis|love of corgis]] began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.<ref>{{citation |last=Bush |first=Karen |title=Everything Dogs Expect You To Know |location=London |url= |access-date=18 September 2012 |date=26 October 2007 |publisher=New Holland Publishers |isbn=978-1-84537-954-4 |page=115}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Pierce |first=Andrew |url= |title=Hug for Queen Elizabeth's first corgi |work=The Telegraph |date=1 October 2007 |access-date=21 September 2012}}</ref> Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life have occasionally been witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepare a meal together and do the washing up afterwards.<ref>{{citation |url= |last=Delacourt |first=Susan |title=When the Queen is your boss |date=25 May 2012 |newspaper=[[Toronto Star]] |access-date=27 May 2012}}</ref>
In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".<ref>Bond, p. 22</ref> After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".<ref>Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 180; Roberts, p. 82; Shawcross, p. 50</ref> Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.<ref>Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 280; Shawcross, p. 76</ref> In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary ''[[Royal Family (documentary)|Royal Family]]'' and by televising Prince Charles's [[Investiture of the Prince of Wales|investiture as Prince of Wales]].<ref>Bond, pp. 66–67, 84, 87–89; Bradford, pp. 160–163; Hardman, pp. 22, 210–213; Lacey, pp. 222–226; Marr, p. 237; Pimlott, pp. 378–392; Roberts, pp. 84–86</ref> In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd.<ref>{{citation |first=Jess |last=Cartner-Morley |url= |title=Elizabeth II, belated follower of fashion |date=10 May 2007 |access-date=5 September 2011 |newspaper=The Guardian |location=London}}</ref>
At her [[Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II|Silver Jubilee]] in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic,<ref>Bond, p. 97; Bradford, p. 189; Pimlott, pp. 449–450; Roberts, p. 87; Shawcross, pp. 114–117</ref> but, in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.<ref>Bond, p. 117; Roberts, p. 91</ref> Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.<ref>Bond, p. 134; Pimlott, pp. 556–561, 570</ref> Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of the former Princess of Wales, Diana, although Elizabeth's personal popularity – as well as general support for the monarchy – rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.<ref>Bond, p. 134; Pimlott, pp. 624–625</ref>
In November 1999, a [[1999 Australian republic referendum|referendum in Australia]] on the future of the [[Australian monarchy]] favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.<ref>Hardman, p. 310; Lacey, p. 387; Roberts, p. 101; Shawcross, p. 218</ref> Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for Elizabeth,<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Monarchy poll |date=April 2006 |publisher=[[Ipsos MORI]] |access-date=22 March 2015}}<br />{{citation |url= |format=PDF |title=Monarchy Survey |publisher=[[Populus Ltd]] |page=9 |date=16 December 2007 |access-date=17 August 2010 |archive-url= |archive-date=11 May 2011}}<br />{{citation |url= |title=Poll respondents back UK monarchy |publisher=BBC News |date=28 December 2007 |access-date=17 August 2010}}</ref> and in 2012, her Diamond Jubilee year, approval ratings hit 90 percent.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Monarchy/Royal Family Trends&nbsp;– Satisfaction with the Queen |date=19 May 2016 |publisher=Ipsos MORI |access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> Referendums in [[2008 Tuvaluan constitutional referendum|Tuvalu in 2008]] and [[2009 Vincentian constitutional referendum|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009]] both rejected proposals to become republics.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Vincies vote "No" |publisher=BBC News |date=26 November 2009 |access-date=26 November 2009}}</ref>
Elizabeth has been portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters [[Pietro Annigoni]], [[Peter Blake (artist)|Peter Blake]], [[Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy]], [[Terence Cuneo]], [[Lucian Freud]], [[Rolf Harris]], [[Damien Hirst]], [[Juliet Pannett]], and [[Tai-Shan Schierenberg]].<ref>{{citation |last=Riley |first=Ben |url= |title=Revealed: Damien Hirst's only portrait of the Queen found in government archives |work=The Telegraph |date=12 February 2016 |access-date=10 September 2016}}</ref><ref name=NPG1>{{citation |url= |title=Elizabeth II |publisher=[[National Portrait Gallery, London|National Portrait Gallery]] |access-date=22 June 2013}}</ref> Notable photographers of Elizabeth have included [[Cecil Beaton]], [[Yousuf Karsh]], [[Annie Leibovitz]], [[Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield|Lord Lichfield]], [[Terry O'Neill (photographer)|Terry O'Neill]], [[John Swannell (photographer)|John Swannell]], and [[Dorothy Wilding]]. The first official portrait of Elizabeth was taken by [[Marcus Adams (photographer)|Marcus Adams]] in 1926.<ref name=NPG>{{citation |url= |title=Marcus Adams |publisher=National Portrait Gallery |access-date=20 April 2013}}</ref>
== Finances ==
{{Further|Finances of the British royal family}}
[[File:Sandringham House garden.jpg|thumb|alt=View of Sandingham House from the south bank of the Upper Lake|[[Sandringham House]], Elizabeth's private residence in [[Sandringham, Norfolk|Norfolk]]]]
Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, [[Jock Colville]], her former private secretary and a director of her bank, [[Coutts]], estimated her wealth at £2&nbsp;million (equivalent to about £{{Formatprice|{{Inflation|UK|2000000|1971|r=-6}}}} in {{Inflation-year|UK}}{{Inflation-fn|UK|df=y|mode=cs2}}).<ref>{{citation |title=£2m estimate of the Queen's wealth 'more likely to be accurate' |journal=[[The Times]] |date=11 June 1971 |page=1}}</ref><ref>Pimlott, p. 401</ref> In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100&nbsp;million "grossly overstated".<ref>[[Lord Chamberlain]] [[David Ogilvy, 13th Earl of Airlie|Lord Airlie]] quoted in Hoey, p. 225 and Pimlott, p. 561</ref> In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70&nbsp;million from her mother.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Queen inherits Queen Mother's estate |date=17 May 2002 |access-date=25 December 2015 |publisher=BBC News}}</ref> The ''[[Sunday Times Rich List 2020]]'' estimated her personal wealth at £350&nbsp;million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK.<ref>{{citation |last=Times|first=The Sunday|title=The Queen net worth — Sunday Times Rich List 2020|language=en|url=|access-date=11 November 2020|issn=0140-0460}}</ref> She was number one on the list when it began in the ''[[Sunday Times Rich List 1989]]'', with a reported wealth of £5.2&nbsp;billion, which included state assets that were not hers personally,<ref>{{citation |date=18 April 2013|title=Rich List: Changing face of wealth|work=BBC News|url=|access-date=23 July 2020}}</ref> (approximately £{{Formatprice|{{Inflation|UK|5200000000|1989|r=-6}}}} in today's value).{{Inflation-fn|UK|df=y|mode=cs2}}
The [[Royal Collection]], which includes thousands of historic works of art and the [[British Crown Jewels]], is not owned personally but is held [[Trust law|in trust]] by the Queen,<ref>{{citation |url= |title=FAQs |publisher=Royal Collection |access-date=29 March 2012}}<br />{{citation |url= |title=The Royal Collection |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=20 November 2015}}</ref> as are her official residences, such as [[Buckingham Palace]] and [[Windsor Castle]],<ref name=res>{{citation |url= |title=The Royal Residences: Overview |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=9 December 2009 |archive-url= |archive-date=1 May 2011}}</ref> and the [[Duchy of Lancaster]], a property portfolio valued at £472&nbsp;million in 2015.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Accounts, Annual Reports and Investments |publisher=Duchy of Lancaster |year=2015 |access-date=19 August 2017| archive-url=| archive-date=24 August 2017}}</ref> (The [[Paradise Papers]], leaked in 2017, show that the Duchy of Lancaster held investments in two [[tax haven]] overseas territories, the [[Cayman Islands]] and [[Bermuda]].<ref>{{citation |last1=Osborne|first1=Hilary|title=Revealed: Queen's private estate invested millions of pounds offshore|url=|newspaper=The Guardian|access-date=9 November 2020|date=5 November 2017|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=5 November 2017}}</ref>) [[Sandringham House]] and [[Balmoral Castle]] are personally owned by the Queen.<ref name=res /> The British [[Crown Estate]] – with holdings of £14.3&nbsp;billion in 2019<ref>{{citation|url=|title=Brilliant places for our customers|publisher=Crown Estate|date=2019|access-date=17 June 2020}}</ref> – is held in trust and cannot be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=FAQs |publisher=Crown Estate |access-date=22 March 2015}}</ref>
== Titles, styles, honours, and arms ==
=== Titles and styles ===
{{Main|List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II}}
* 21 April 1926{{spaced ndash}}11 December 1936: ''Her Royal Highness'' Princess Elizabeth of York
* 11 December 1936{{spaced ndash}}20 November 1947: ''Her Royal Highness'' The Princess Elizabeth
* 20 November 1947{{spaced ndash}}6 February 1952: ''Her Royal Highness'' The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
* Since 6 February 1952: ''Her Majesty'' The Queen
Elizabeth has held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]], is Sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and has received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms she has a distinct title that follows a similar formula: ''Queen of Jamaica and her other realms and territories'' in Jamaica, ''Queen of Australia and her other realms and territories'' in Australia, etc. In the [[Channel Islands]] and [[Isle of Man]], which are [[Crown dependencies]] rather than separate realms, she is known as [[Duke of Normandy]] and [[Lord of Mann]], respectively. Additional styles include [[Fidei defensor|Defender of the Faith]] and [[Duke of Lancaster]]. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to address her initially as ''Your Majesty'' and thereafter as ''Ma'am''.<ref>{{citation |title=Greeting a member of The Royal Family |url= |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=15 January 2016}}</ref>
=== Arms ===
{{See also|Flags of Elizabeth II}}
From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a [[Lozenge (heraldry)|lozenge]] bearing the [[royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom]] differenced with a [[Label (heraldry)|label]] of three points [[argent]], the centre point bearing a [[Tudor rose]] and the first and third a [[St George's Cross|cross of St George]].<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Coat of Arms: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth |publisher=[[Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia]] |access-date=6 April 2013 |archive-url= |archive-date=6 November 2013}}</ref> Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. The Queen also possesses [[Banner#Heraldic banners|royal standards]] and personal flags for use in [[Royal Standard of the United Kingdom|the United Kingdom]], [[Royal standards of Canada|Canada]], [[Queen's Personal Australian Flag|Australia]], [[Queen's Personal Flag for New Zealand|New Zealand]], [[Queen's Personal Jamaican Flag|Jamaica]], [[Queen's Personal Barbadian Flag|Barbados]], and elsewhere.<ref>{{citation |url= |title=Personal flags |publisher=Royal Household |access-date=18 April 2016 |date=15 January 2016}}</ref>
== Issue ==
{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders"
! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Name
! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Birth
! colspan="2" scope="col" | Marriage
! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Their children
! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Their grandchildren
! scope="col" | Date
! scope="col" | Spouse
! rowspan="3" scope="row" | [[Charles, Prince of Wales]]
| rowspan="3" | 14 November 1948
| rowspan="2" | 29 July 1981<br /><small>Divorced 28 August 1996</small>
| rowspan="2" | [[Lady Diana Spencer]]
| [[Prince William, Duke of Cambridge]]
| [[Prince George of Cambridge|Prince George]]<br />[[Princess Charlotte of Cambridge|Princess Charlotte]]<br />[[Prince Louis of Cambridge|Prince Louis]]
| [[Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex]]
| [[Archie Mountbatten-Windsor]]
| 9 April 2005
| [[Camilla Parker Bowles]]
| colspan="2" {{N/A|None}}
! rowspan="3" scope="row" | [[Anne, Princess Royal]]
| rowspan="3" | 15 August 1950
| rowspan="2" | 14 November 1973<br /><small>Divorced 28 April 1992</small>
| rowspan="2" | [[Mark Phillips]]
| [[Peter Phillips]]
| Savannah Phillips<br />Isla Phillips
| [[Zara Tindall]]
| Mia Tindall<br />Lena Tindall<br />Lucas Tindall
| 12 December 1992
| [[Timothy Laurence]]
| colspan="2" {{N/A|None}}
! rowspan="2" scope="row" | [[Prince Andrew, Duke of York]]
| rowspan="2" | 19 February 1960
| rowspan="2" | 23 July 1986<br /><small>Divorced 30 May 1996</small>
| rowspan="2" | [[Sarah Ferguson]]
| [[Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi]]
| {{N/A|None}}
| [[Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank]]
| August Brooksbank
! rowspan="2" scope="row" | [[Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex]]
| rowspan="2" | 10 March 1964
| rowspan="2" | 19 June 1999
| rowspan="2" | [[Sophie Rhys-Jones]]
| [[Lady Louise Windsor]]
| {{N/A|None}}
| [[James, Viscount Severn]]
| {{N/A|None}}
== Ancestry ==
|align=center|collapsed=yes|ref=<ref>{{citation |last=Louda |first=Jiří |last2=Maclagan |first2=Michael |author-link2=Michael Maclagan |year=1999 |orig-year=1981 |title=Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe |edition=2nd |location=London |publisher=Little, Brown |isbn=978-0-316-84820-6 |page=34}}</ref>
|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;
|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;
|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;
|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
|1= 1. '''Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom'''
|2= 2. [[George VI of the United Kingdom]]
|3= 3. [[Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon]]
|4= 4. [[George V of the United Kingdom]]
|5= 5. [[Princess Mary of Teck]]
|6= 6. [[Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne]]
|7= 7. [[Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne|Cecilia Nina Cavendish-Bentinck]]
|8= 8. [[Edward VII of the United Kingdom]]
|9= 9. [[Alexandra of Denmark|Princess Alexandra of Denmark]]
|10= 10. [[Francis, Duke of Teck]]
|11= 11. [[Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge]]
|12= 12. [[Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne]]
|13= 13. [[Frances Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne|Frances Dora Smith]]
|14= 14. [[Charles Cavendish-Bentinck (priest)|Charles Cavendish-Bentinck]]
|15= 15. [[Louisa Cavendish-Bentinck|Caroline Louisa Burnaby]]
== See also ==
* [[Household of Queen Elizabeth II]]
* [[List of things named after Elizabeth II]]
* [[List of Jubilees of British monarchs#Elizabeth II|List of Jubilees of Elizabeth II]]
* [[Royal Address to the Nation#Elizabeth_II|List of special addresses made by Elizabeth II]]
* [[Royal eponyms in Canada]]
* [[Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX]]
== Notes ==
== References ==
== Bibliography ==
* [[Jennie Bond|Bond, Jennie]] (2006). ''Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years''. London: Carlton Publishing Group. {{ISBN|1-84442-260-7}}
* Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002). ''Fifty Years the Queen''. Toronto: Dundurn Press. {{ISBN|978-1-55002-360-2}}
* [[Sarah Bradford|Bradford, Sarah]] (2012). ''Queen Elizabeth II: Her Life in Our Times''. London: Penguin. {{ISBN|978-0-670-91911-6}}
* [[Gyles Brandreth|Brandreth, Gyles]] (2004). ''Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage''. London: Century. {{ISBN|0-7126-6103-4}}
* [[Asa Briggs|Briggs, Asa]] (1995). ''The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume 4''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-212967-8}}
* [[John Campbell (biographer)|Campbell, John]] (2003). ''Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady''. London: Jonathan Cape. {{ISBN|0-224-06156-9}}
* [[Marion Crawford|Crawford, Marion]] (1950). ''The Little Princesses''. London: Cassell & Co.
* Hardman, Robert (2011). ''Our Queen''. London: Hutchinson. {{ISBN|978-0-09-193689-1}}
* [[Tim Heald|Heald, Tim]] (2007). ''Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled''. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. {{ISBN|978-0-297-84820-2}}
* Hoey, Brian (2002). ''Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years''. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-653136-9}}
* [[Robert Lacey|Lacey, Robert]] (2002). ''Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II''. London: Little, Brown. {{ISBN|0-316-85940-0}}
* [[Harold Macmillan|Macmillan, Harold]] (1972). ''Pointing The Way 1959–1961'' London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-12411-1}}
* [[Andrew Marr|Marr, Andrew]] (2011). ''The Diamond Queen: Elizabeth II and Her People''. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|978-0-230-74852-1}}
* [[Andrew Neil|Neil, Andrew]] (1996). ''Full Disclosure''. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-64682-7}}
* [[Harold Nicolson|Nicolson, Sir Harold]] (1952). ''King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign''. London: Constable & Co.
* [[Jonathan Petropoulos|Petropoulos, Jonathan]] (2006). ''Royals and the Reich: the princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany''. New York: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-516133-5}}
* [[Ben Pimlott|Pimlott, Ben]] (2001). ''The Queen: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy''. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-255494-1}}
* [[Andrew Roberts (historian)|Roberts, Andrew]]; Edited by [[Antonia Fraser]] (2000). ''The House of Windsor''. London: Cassell & Co. {{ISBN|0-304-35406-6}}
* [[William Shawcross|Shawcross, William]] (2002). ''Queen and Country''. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. {{ISBN|0-7710-8056-5}}
* [[Margaret Thatcher|Thatcher, Margaret]] (1993). ''The Downing Street Years''. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-255049-0}}
* [[Pierre Trudeau|Trudeau, Pierre Elliott]] (1993). ''Memoirs''. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart. {{ISBN|978-0-7710-8588-8}}
* Williamson, David (1987). ''[[Debrett's]] Kings and Queens of Britain''. Webb & Bower. {{ISBN|0-86350-101-X}}
* [[Woodrow Wyatt|Wyatt, Woodrow]]; Edited by Sarah Curtis (1999). ''The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: Volume II''. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-77405-1}}
== External links ==
{{Spoken Wikipedia|En-Elizabeth II-article.ogg|date=23 June 2014}}
* [ The Queen] at the Royal Family website
* {{Britannica|184870}}
* [ Queen Elizabeth II's profile] on [[BBC]]
* {{NPG name|name=Queen Elizabeth II}}
* {{IMDb name|id=0703070|name=Queen Elizabeth II}}
{{hidden begin|title=Titles and succession|titlestyle=text-align: centre|border=#aaa 1px solid; width: 98.5%}}
{{s-hou|[[House of Windsor]]|21 April|1926}}
{{s-bef|rows=7|before=[[George VI]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of the United Kingdom]]|years=6 February 1952 – present}}
{{s-inc|rows=4|heir=[[Charles, Prince of Wales]]|heir-type=Heir apparent}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Australia]]|years=6 February 1952 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Canada]]|years=6 February 1952 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of New Zealand]]|years=6 February 1952 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of heads of state of Sri Lanka#Monarch (1948–1972)|Queen of Ceylon]]|years=6 February 1952 – 22 May 1972}}
{{s-non|reason=Republics established|rows=16}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Pakistan]]|years=6 February 1952 – 23 March 1956}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of South Africa]]|years=6 February 1952 – 31 May 1961}}
{{s-new|rows=17|reason=Independence from the United Kingdom}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Ghana]]|years=6 March 1957 – 1 July 1960}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Nigeria]]|years=1 October 1960 – 1 October 1963}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Sierra Leone]]|years=27 April 1961 – 19 April 1971}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Tanganyika]]|years=9 December 1961 – 9 December 1962}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Trinidad and Tobago]]|years=31 August 1962 – 1 August 1976}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Uganda]]|years=9 October 1962 – 9 October 1963}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Kenya]]|years=12 December 1963 – 12 December 1964}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Malawi]]|years=6 July 1964 – 6 July 1966}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Malta]]|years=21 September 1964 – 13 December 1974}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of the Gambia]]|years=18 February 1965 – 24 April 1970}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Guyana]]|years=26 May 1966 – 23 February 1970}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Mauritius]]|years=12 March 1968 – 12 March 1992}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Fiji]]|years=10 October 1970 – 6 October 1987}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Jamaica]]|years=6 August 1962 – present}}
{{s-inc|rows=12|heir=[[Charles, Prince of Wales]]|heir-type=Heir apparent}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Barbados]]|years=30 November 1966 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of the Bahamas]]|years=10 July 1973 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Grenada]]|years=7 February 1974 – present}}
{{s-new|reason=Independence from Australia}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Papua New Guinea]]|years=16 September 1975 – present}}
{{s-new|reason=Independence from the United Kingdom|rows=7}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of the Solomon Islands]]|years=7 July 1978 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Tuvalu]]|years=1 October 1978 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Saint Lucia]]|years=22 February 1979 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines]]|years=27 October 1979 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Belize]]|years=21 September 1981 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Antigua and Barbuda]]|years=1 November 1981 – present}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Queen of Saint Kitts and Nevis]]|years=19 September 1983 – present}}
{{s-bef|before=[[George VI]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Head of the Commonwealth]]|years=1952–present}}
{{s-inc|heir=[[Charles, Prince of Wales]]|heir-type=Nominated successor}}
{{s-bef|before=[[George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe|The Earl Jellicoe]]<br />''{{small|as First Lord of the Admiralty}}''}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom|Lord High Admiral]]|years=1964–2011}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|The Duke of Edinburgh]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom]]<br />''{{small|as sovereign}}''}}
{{s-fol|after=[[Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|The Duke of Edinburgh]]}}
{{hidden end}}