Forskel mellem versioner af "Cromwells erobring af Irland"

 
''massakre, landsforvisning og ødelæggelse af den katolske befolkning'' hvis de gør modstand ''Håber jeg at blive fri for trøstesløsheden og elendigheden, at blod og ruin skal ramme dem og jeg vil fryde mig over at påføre dem den hårdeste voldsomhed''
 
For nyligt er det blevet fremført af Tom Reilly i ''Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy''<ref>Reilly, Dingle 1999 {{page number}}</ref> at hvad der skete ved Drogheda og Wexford ikke var usædvanligt for det 17.århundredes belejringskrig, hvor byer blev taget med storm og dens indbyggere myrdet for at afskrække fra yderligere angreb. Tidsskriftet ''History Ireland'' forfægter dog dette synspunkt: ''"Hans (Reilly) argument at Cromwell moralsk ingen ret havde til at tage civile liv og så på den anden side alligevel havde loven på sin side, ville ikke bestå nogen eksamen"''. Samtidig udtalte [[John Morrill]] at "Tom Reilly har søsat et stort projekt der vil rehabilitere Cromwells ære, men dette synspunkt er blevet skarpt forfægtet af andre forskere''.<ref>John Morrill. "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences." ''Canadian Journal of History.'' Dec 2003: 19.</ref> Cromwell-kritiske historikere hæfter sig ved at selv i samtiden blev grufuldhederne ved Drogheda og Wexford opfattet som sådanne. De anfører i kilder at den parlamentaristiske kommandør efter Ireton, [[Edmund Ludlow]], skrev at Cromwells taktik ved Wexford og Drogheda viste "ekstraordinær grusomhed".
 
Cromwells handlinger i Irland skal ses i kontekst af tilsvarende samtidige grusomheder. I 1641-42 havde irske katolikker dræbt mellem 4000 og 12000 protestantiske bosættere i Ulster før de kunne flygte. I den protestantiske propaganda blev det set som et katolsk irsk forsøg på at ville udrydde protestantismen i Irland. Det fik det engelske parlament og skotske covenanter til at foretage sig lignende hævn på den irske katolske befolkning. En parlamentspjece fra 1655 hævdede at "hele den irske nation, bestående af adel, gejstlige og borgerskab er engageret i den konflikt som sigter mod at fjerne og udrydde alle engelske protestanter blandt dem".<ref>Richard Lawrence, the Interest of England in Irish transplantation (1655), quoted in Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p111</ref> En historiker er endda gået så langt som til at sige at "De katolske massakrer i 1641 var ment til at fungere som Cromwells påskud for at indlede sin folkedrabs og bosættelseskampagne".<ref>Peter Berresford Ellis (2002). ''Eyewitness to Irish History''. John Wiley & Sons Inc 2002. ISBN-13: 978-0471266334. p. 108</ref>
 
Som krigen udviklede sig, så man grusomheder på alle sider. De skotske Covenantsoldater under ledelse af General Monroe, der belv sendt til Irland af det skotske parlament i 1642, massakrerede op til 3.000 på Island Magee 9.januar 1642. Da Murrough O´Brien, jarl af Inchiquin og parlamentaristisk kommandør i [[Cork]], erobrede [[Cashel]] i 1647 nedslagtede han hele garnisonen samt de gejstlige (inklusiv [[Theobald Stapleton]]) hvilket gav ham øgenavnet ''Murrough of the Burnings'' (I 1648 skiftede han sågar side og blev kommandør i den royalistiske hær). Efter slag som [[Dungans Hill]] og [[Scarrifholis]] nedslagtede engelske parlamentarister de tilfangetagne irske katolikker. Tilsvarende hængte Forbundets katolske general Thomas Preston irske katolikker som frafaldne da han generobrede [[Maynooth]] i 1647. I England havde man set tilsvarende grusomheder i den sidste del af krigen ved [[belejringen af Colchester]] i 1648.
 
Set i ovenstående lys har nogle argumenteret at Cromwells grusomheder ikke var usædvanlige, da han ikke kunne finansiere et langvarigt felttog.
 
Under alle omstændigheder har Cromwells felttog fra 1649-53 vedvarende indtaget en position af uhært grusomhed i irernes kollektive erindring grundet det enorme dødstal. Den største grund skal nok findes i den taktik der lå bag nedkæmpelsen af guerillakampene fra 1650, som en stor del af den irske befolkning deltog i. Taktikken bestod af afbrænding af fødevarer, tvangforflyttelser af mennesker og civile drab. Denne politik forårsagede hungersnød over hele landet fra 1651 og frem og de kommandører der stod bag ville være mere oplagte at dømme for folkedrab og krigsforbrydelser med moderne standarder end Cromwell selv.
 
Hertil kommer at de bosættelser der foregik efter krigens afslutning tenderer til folkedrab på den katolske befolkning i det østlige Irland, da disse blev tvangsforflyttet fra denne del af landet. Cromwells tilstedeværelse blev fulgt af et massivt dyk i befolkningstallet primært grundet tvangsflytningerne.<!-- REF TAG START--><ref>
*Mark Levene (2005). ''Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2''. ISBN-13: 978-1845110574 Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population".
*Alan Axelrod (2002). ''Profiles in Leadership'', Prentice-Hall. 2002. Page 122. "As a leader Cromwell was entirely unyielding. He was willing to act on his beliefs, even if this meant killing the king and perpetrating, against the Irish, something very nearly approaching genocide"
* Albert Breton (1995). ''Nationalism and Rationality''. Cambridge University Press 1995. Page 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer"
* ''Ukrainian Quarterly''. Ukrainian Society of America 1944. "Therefore, we are entitled to accuse the England of Oliver Cromwell of the genocide of the Irish civilian population.."
*David Norbrook (2000).''Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627-1660''. Cambridge University Press. 2000. In interpreting Andrew Marvell's contemporarily expressed views on Cromwell Norbrook says; "He (Cromwell) laid the foundation for a ruthless programme of resettling the Irish Catholics which amounted to large scale ethnic cleansing.."
*John Morrill (2003). ''Rewriting Cromwell - A Case of Deafening Silences'', Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003. "Of course, this has never been the Irish view of Cromwell.<br> Most Irish remember him as the man responsible for the mass slaughter of civilians at Drogheda and Wexford and as the agent of the greatest episode of ethnic cleansing ever attempted in Western Europe as, within a decade, the percentage of land possessed by Catholics born in Ireland dropped from sixty to twenty. In a decade, the ownership of two-fifths of the land mass was transferred from several thousand Irish Catholic landowners to British Protestants. The gap between Irish and the English views of the seventeenth-century conquest remains unbridgeable and is governed by O.K. Chesterton's mirthless epigram of 1917, that "it was a tragic necessity that the Irish should remember it; but it was far more tragic that the English forgot it."
*Staff. ''International Institute of Social History'' Website (Based in the Netherlands), "Roman Catholic Irish were subdued to ethnic cleansing policy by Oliver Cromwell. After his suppression of a rebellion against the English in 1649 he ordered that the Irish were allowed to live west of the Shannon river only. During the guerrilla warfare that followed thousands of Irish died or were sold as indentured labourers in America.<br>King Charles and the English parliament had promised the land of Irish rebels in return for war loans under the [[Adventurers Act]] in 1642. The number of land-owning rebels had grown during [[Confederate Ireland]], and The 'Act for the Attainder of the Rebels in Ireland' of 17 September 1656 was a part of this policy. Unlike Charles, Cromwell's [[Puritan]] religion was harshly anti-Catholic and naturally this had a great impact in a country where most were Catholic. By the end of 1656 four fifths of the Irish land was in Protestant hands."
*Frances Stewart (2000). ''War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1'' (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."
*James M Lutz, Brenda J Lutz, (2004). ''Global Terrorism'', Routledge:London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
*Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B.Tauris: London: ''[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.</ref><!-- REF TAG END-->
 
== Langsigtet betydning ==