Forskel mellem versioner af "Subatomar partikel"

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== Partikelegenskaber (4 fundamentalkræfter) ==
I fysikken kan partikler have følgende 4 fundamentale vekselvirkningsegenskaber i partikelfysikkens [[Standardmodel]]. Det skal bemærkes at gravitation er selvstændig, da den ikke er indeholdt i Standardmodellen:
* Egenskaber
** [[Elektromagnetisme]]. (Teori: [[Kvanteelektrodynamikken|QED]]). Påvirker partikler med [[elektrisk ladning|ladning]] - vekselvirkningskvant; [[foton]].
** [[Svage kernekraft]]. Påvirker partikler med [[Flavor]] - vekselvirkningskvanter; [[W og Z bosoner]].
** [[Stærke kernekraft]]. (Teori: [[Kvantekromodynamikken|QCD]]).
*** [[Fundamentale stærke kernekraft]]. Påvirker partikler med [[farveladning]]; kvarker og gluoner - [[vekselvirkningskvant]]; [[gluon]].
*** [[Residuelle stærke kernekraft]]. Påvirker partikler med ??; [[hadron]]er - vekselvirkningskvant; [[meson]].
** [[Gravitation]]. Påvirker alt med en [[masse (fysik)|masse]] eller [[energi]] (dvs. alle subatomare partikler) - vekselvirkningskvant; [[graviton]] (som endnu ikke er eksperimentelt påvist).
 
== Partikelegenskaber (1...3 fundamentalkrafter) ==
De 2 resterende teorier ''teorien om alting'' og ''den store samlende teori'' er ikke realiseret endnu.
 
* Egenskaber
** (Formodet teori: [[Teorien om alting]])
*** (Formodet teori: [[Den store samlende teori|Den store samlende teori, GUT]])
**** [[Elektrosvag kraft]]. (Accepteret teori: [[Glashow-Salam-Weinberg-teorien|GSW]])
***** [[Elektromagnetisme]]
***** [[Svage kernekraft]]
**** [[Stærke kernekraft]]
***** [[Fundamentale stærke kernekraft]]
***** [[Residuelle stærke kernekraft]]
*** [[Gravitation]]
 
== Partikelklassifikation ==
[[Stof (fysik)|Stofs]] subatomare partikler består af [[elementarpartikel|elementarpartikler]] og de subatomare partikler kan klassificeres i:
 
* '''Subatomar partikel'''
** [[Fermion]]er, (stofpartikler der har [[Spin (fysik)|spin]] 1/2, 3/2, 5/2,...).
*** [[Baryon]]er (kan vekselvirke med den stærke kernekraft) f.eks. hadroner dvs. [[proton]]er og neutroner.
**** [[Kvark (fysik)|Kvarker]]: [[up-kvark|u-kvark]], [[down-kvark|d-kvark]], [[charm-kvark|c-kvark]], [[strange-kvark|s-kvark]], [[top-kvark|t-kvark]], [[bottom-kvark|b-kvark]] og deres antipartikler.
*** [[lepton]]er (kan ''ikke'' vekselvirke med den stærke kernekraft): [[elektron]]er, [[myon]]er, [[tauon]]er, [[elektronneutrino]]er, [[myonneutrino]]er, [[tauonneutrino]]er og deres antipartikler.
** [[Boson]]er, kraftpartikler (Kraftformidlere) (Har [[Spin (fysik)|spin]] 0, 1, 2,...).
*** ([[graviton]]er, [[foton]]er, [[W-boson]]er, [[Z-boson]]er, [[gluon]]er, [[meson]]er)
 
== Tabel over nogle mesoner (består af 2 kvarker) ==
 
I disse www-sider fortælles, at laboratorier har opdaget nye partikler, som består af 2 kvarker:
* [http://physicsweb.org/article/news/8/6/11 18 June 2004, PhysicsWeb: New particle baffles physicists]
* [http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/9/5/11/1 18 May 2005, PhysicsWeb: Particle physicists discover new meson] Citat: "...the first "hybrid meson"..."
 
== Tabel over nogle baryoner (består af 3 kvarker) ==
== Partikler som formodentlig består af 4 kvarker ==
I disse www-sider fortælles, at laboratorier har opdaget partikler, som formodentlig består af 4 kvarker:
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3277579.stm 18 November, 2003, BBCNews: Scientists find mystery particle] Citat: "...To explain it, theoretical physicists may have to modify their theory of the colour force; or make X(3872) the first example of a new type of meson, one that is made from four quarks (two quarks and two antiquarks)...".
** [http://www.physicsweb.org/article/news/7/11/7 14 November 2003, Physics Web: New particle turns up in Japan] Citat: "...X(3872)..."
** [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0309032 8 Sep 2003, High Energy Physics: Observation of a narrow charmonium-like state in exclusive B+ → K+ pi+pi- J/psi decays]
* [http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2003/split/643-1.html June 26, 2003, Physics News Update: The Meson Ds(2317)]
 
 
== Partikler som formodentlig består af 5 kvarker; "eksotiske" bosoner ==
I disse www-sider fortælles, at der er blevet opdaget flere partikler, som består af 5 kvarker:
* [http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/18/2/4 Physics in Action: February 2005: Do pentaquarks really exist?] Citat: "...Results from a growing number of experiments at laboratories around the world are casting doubt on the recent discovery of particles containing five quarks..."
* [http://www.cerncourier.com/main/article/44/3/18 CERN Courier: The challenge of the pentaquarks]
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/01/040126072245.htm 2004-01-26, Sciencedaily: The Pentaquark: The Strongest Confirmation To Date]
* [http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2003/split/644-1.html Number 644 #1, June 30, 2003, Physics News Update: A Five-Quark State Has Been Discovered].
** [http://www.phy.ohiou.edu/%7Ehicks/thplus.html Kenneth Hicks: Physicists Find Evidence for an Exotic Baryon]
** [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-56/iss-9/p19.html Physics today, September 2003: Four Experiments Give Evidence of an Exotic Baryon With Five Quarks]
* [http://www.cerncourier.com/main/article/43/10/1 December 2003, CERN Courier: New five-quark states found at CERN]
** [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0310014 (hep-ex/0310014) Observation of an Exotic S = -2, Q = -2 Baryon Resonance in Proton-Proton Collisions at the CERN SPS]
* [http://www.physicsweb.org/article/news/8/3/9 17 March 2004, Physics Web: Charmed pentaquark appears at DESY]
** [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0403017 hep-ex/0403017: Evidence for a Narrow Anti-Charmed Baryon State]
 
 
 
== Se også ==
* [[Elementarpartikel]]
* [[Stof (fysik)|Stof]]
* [[Antistof (fysik)|Antistof]]
* [[Partikelfysik]]
* [[Fysik]]
* [[Kvantemekanik]]
 
{{Universet}}
 
== Eksterne henvisninger ==
* [http://www.nakskov-gym.dk/fysik/la/partikelfysik_webmappe/partikelfysik_hovedside.htm Nakskov Gymnasium: Partikelfysik]
* [http://www.google.dk/search?q=dr.dk+%22Tyngdeb%F8lger%22 dr.dk: Tyngdebølger]
* [http://universer.dk/forenet.htm Steven Weinberg: En forenet fysik i år 2050?]
* [http://particleadventure.org/particleadventure/frameless/standard_model.html particleadventure.org: The Standard Model], [http://particleadventure.org/particleadventure/frameless/beyond_start.html Unsolved Mysteries. Beyond The Standard Model], [http://particleadventure.org/particleadventure/frameless/quarknaming.html What is the World Made of? The Naming of Quarks] (God populær fremstilling på engelsk).
* [http://particleadventure.org/particleadventure/frameless/chart.html particleadventure.org: Particle chart]
* [http://cft.fis.uc.pt/eef/ Eef van Beveren]
* [http://unisci.com/stories/20013/0828012.htm UniSci: Anti-Proton Mass And Charge Measured For First Time] Citat: "...In this case, the values agree with those of the proton (allowing for the opposite charge) to within 60 parts per billion...."
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1504267.stm 22 August, 2001, BBCNews: Physicists make 'strange' matter] Citat: "...Strange matter, however, is composed of [[up-kvark|up]], [[down-kvark|down]], and [[Strange-kvark|strange quarks]]...."
* [http://unisci.com/stories/20021/0121021.htm 21-Jan-2002 UniSci: Quantum Gravitational States Observed For First Time] Citat: "...The researchers report seeing a minimum (quantum) energy of 1.4 picoelectron volts (1.4 x 10^-12 eV)..."
* [http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/html/cpviolationtoc.htm LHCB: Everything you ever wanted to know about CP violation and never dared to ask]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/291299.stm BBC News 5-3-1999: 'Sensational' anti-matter discovery] "...The phenomenon they think they spotted is technically called direct Charge-Parity (CP) violation. It means that particles behave differently if you swap matter for anti-matter and also swap left and right. ...The observation of direct CP violation is an exciting one for physicists as it disagrees with all the currently held theories about the nature of matter. "
* [http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2003/split/660-2.html Number 660 #2, November 4, 2003, Physics News Update: Acceleration Disrupts Quantum Teleportation] Citat: "...While this effect is small for typical accelerations in Earthly labs the result shows an interesting relationship between the effects of [[rumtid|space-time]] motion and the [[kvantemekanik|quantum world]]..."
* [http://jgalvez.home.cern.ch/jgalvez/School/pdf/LM-WeakIteractions.pdf Jose Galvez: Chapter 1 Electrodynamics (pdf)]
* [http://web.mit.edu/redingtn/www/netadv/qft.html Annotated Physics Encyclopædia: Quantum Field Theory]
* [http://pdg.lbl.gov/ University of California: Particle Data Group]
* [http://bloodaxe.phyast.pitt.edu/exotica/bib/MultiPh.html Multiquarks: Phenomenology]
 
[[Kategori:Kvantemekanik]]
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