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=== VaccinationCytologi ===
Den typiske nervecelle kan inddeles i fire strukturelt definerede regioner: En region som modtager signaler fra de omkringliggende celler ('''[[dendrit]]''') som overgår i et cellelegeme ('''[[soma]]''') hvorfra der udspringer en signalledende del ('''[[akson]]''') som ender i en signaloverførende del ('''[[præsynaptisk terminal]]''').[The Human Nervos System p. 11]. Signaloverførslen sker via frigivelse af et signalstof fra den præsynaptiske terminal.
[[File:Vaccination US Navy.jpg|thumb|Influenzavaccinen]]
Influenzavaccinen anbefales af [[World Health Organization]] til højrisikogrupper som børn, ældre, sundhedspersonale og individer men kroniske sygdomme som [[astma]], [[diabetes]], [[hjerte-kar-sygdom]]me og andre immunhæmmende lidelser.<ref>{{cite web|title=Vaccine use|url=http://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/use/en/|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=6 December 2012}}</ref><ref name=cdcreport>{{cite journal| author = Smith NM, Bresee JS, Shay DK, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Strikas RA| title = Prevention and Control of Influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)| journal = [[MMWR Recomm Rep]]| volume = 55| issue = RR–10| pages = 1–42| year = 2006| month = July| pmid = 16874296| url = http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5510.pdf}}</ref>
 
=== Dendrit ===
Blandt raske individer dæmper vaccinen primært symptomerne.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Bawazeer GA, Al-Ansary LA, Ferroni E |title=Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=7 |pages=CD001269 |year=2010 |pmid=20614424 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub4}}</ref> Der har dog været dokumenteret et fald i influenzaforekomsten blandt børn over 2 år.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Jefferson T, Rivetti A, Di Pietrantonj C, Demicheli V, Ferroni E |title=Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume=8 |issue= |pages=CD004879 |year=2012 |pmid=22895945 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD004879.pub4}}</ref> Vaccinen er i stand til at nedsætte luftvejsirritationer blandt individer med [[kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=Poole PJ, Chacko E, Wood-Baker RW, Cates CJ |title=Influenza vaccine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=1 |pages=CD002733 |year=2006 |pmid=16437444 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD002733.pub2}}</ref> men det er ikke lige klart om den har samme gavnlige efffekt på astma-ramte.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Cates CJ, Jefferson TO, Rowe BH |title=Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=2 |pages=CD000364 |year=2008 |pmid=18425863 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD000364.pub3}}</ref> Beviserne for ændret patientudfald ved immunisering af sundhedspersonale har ikke været tilstrækkelige.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Abramson ZH |title=What, in Fact, Is the Evidence That Vaccinating Healthcare Workers against Seasonal Influenza Protects Their Patients? A Critical Review |journal=Int J Family Med |volume=2012 |issue= |pages=205464 |year=2012 |pmid=23209901 |doi=10.1155/2012/205464}}</ref> Dette inkluderer sundhedspersonale som tager sig af de ældre.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Thomas RE, Jefferson T, Lasserson TJ |title=Influenza vaccination for healthcare workers who work with the elderly |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=2 |pages=CD005187 |year=2010 |pmid=20166073 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD005187.pub3}}</ref> Omvendt er der gode beviser for en fladende forekomst af influenza-lignende sygdomme i mange immunhæmmede grupper som dem med [[HIV]]/[[AIDS]], [[cancer]] og individer efter organtransplantation<ref>{{cite journal|last=Beck|first=CR|coauthors=McKenzie, BC; Hashim, AB; Harris, RC; University of Nottingham Influenza and the ImmunoCompromised (UNIIC) Study, Group,; Nguyen-Van-Tam, JS|title=Influenza vaccination for immunocompromised patients: systematic review and meta-analysis by etiology.|journal=The Journal of infectious diseases|date=2012 Oct|volume=206|issue=8|pages=1250–9|pmid=22904335 |doi=10.1093/infdis/jis487}}</ref>
=== Soma ===
 
=== Akson ===
På grund af virus høje [[mutation|mutationsrate]] er vaccinen kun beskyttende i få år. Hvert år forsøger World Health Organization at forudsige hvilke stammer af virus som højest sandsynligt vil spredes det kommende år, som giver medicinalfirmaerne mulighed for at udvikle vacciner som giver den bedste immuntitet mod de kommende stammer.<ref name=WHOrecommendation/> Vaccinen ændres hvert år for få specifikke influenzastammer men inkluderer ikke alle aktive stammer i verdenen gennem sæsonen. Det tager omtrent 6 måneder for virksomhederne at producere de millioner vacciner som kræves for at håndtere en evt. sæsonepidemi. Af og til overses en stamme som derved vil blive den dominerende.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Holmes |first=E |coauthors=Ghedin E, Miller N, Taylor J, Bao Y, St George K, Grenfell B, Salzberg S, Fraser C, Lipman D, Taubenberger J |title=Whole-genome analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses |journal=PLoS Biol |volume=3 |issue=9 |pages=e300 |year=2005 | month = September |pmid=16026181 |doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0030300 |pmc=1180517}}</ref> Det er muligt at blive inficeret lige før vaccination af en stamme som denne skulle beskytte imod som følge af det tager to uger før vaccinen er effektiv.<ref name=CDCkeyfacts/>
 
== Fysiologi ==
 
=== Hvilemembranpotentiale ===
Vaccines can cause the [[immune system]] to react as if the body were actually being infected, and general infection symptoms (many cold and flu symptoms are just general infection symptoms) can appear, though these symptoms are usually not as severe or long-lasting as influenza. The most dangerous [[adverse effect]] is a severe [[allergy|allergic reaction]] to either the virus material itself or residues from the hen eggs used to grow the influenza; however, these reactions are extremely rare.<ref>[http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/flushot.htm Questions & Answers: Flu Shot] CDC publication updated 24 July 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2006.</ref>
=== Signaloverførsel ===
 
The cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination has been widely evaluated for different groups and in different settings. It has generally been found to be a cost-effective intervention, especially in children<ref>{{cite journal|last=Newall|first=Anthony T.|coauthors=Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe|title=Economic Evaluations of Childhood Influenza Vaccination|journal=PharmacoEconomics|date=1 August 2012|volume=30|issue=8|pages=647–660|doi=10.2165/11599130-000000000-00000}}</ref> and the elderly,<ref>{{cite journal|last=Postma|first=Maarten J|coauthors=Baltussen, Rob PM; Palache, Abraham M; Wilschut, Jan C|title=Further evidence for favorable cost-effectiveness of elderly influenza vaccination|journal=Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research|date=1 April 2006|volume=6|issue=2|pages=215–227|doi=10.1586/14737167.6.2.215|pmid=20528557}}</ref> however the results of economic evaluations of influenza vaccination have often been found to be dependent on key assumptions.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Newall|first=Anthony T.|coauthors=Kelly, Heath; Harsley, Stuart; Scuffham, Paul A.|title=Cost Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults|journal=PharmacoEconomics|date=1 June 2009|volume=27|issue=6|pages=439–450|doi=10.2165/00019053-200927060-00001|pmid=19640008}}</ref>
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