Forskel mellem versioner af "Bruger:Kalaha/sandkasse"

59.993 bytes tilføjet ,  for 4 år siden
ingen redigeringsopsummering
{{Redirect|7/7|the calendar date|July 7}}
{{Infoboks organisation
{{Infobox civilian attack
|name = London Passenger Transport Board
|title = 7 July 2005 London bombings
|image =
|image = Russell square ambulances.jpg
|image_border =
|size image_size = 260
|caption = Emergency services at [[Russell Square tube station]] on 7 July 2005
|caption =
|location = London, United Kingdom
|map = LPTA map.png
|target = General public aboard [[London Underground]] trains and a bus in [[central London]]
|msize =
|date = 7 July 2005<br/>08:49&nbsp;–&nbsp;09:47&nbsp;[[British Summer Time|BST]]
|mcaption = London Passenger Transport Area
|timezone = [[UTC+01:00]]
|forkortelse =
|type = [[Mass murder]], [[suicide bombings]], [[terrorism]]
|motto =
|fatalities = 56 (including the 4 perpetrators)
|oprindelse = 1933 (London Passenger Transport Act 1933)
|injuries = 784
|opløsning = 1948 (Transport Act 1947)
|perps = [[Hasib Hussain]]<br/>[[Mohammad Sidique Khan]]<br/>[[Germaine Lindsay]]<br/>[[Shehzad Tanweer]]
|type = Offentligt organ
|statusweapons = =[[TATP]]
|formål = Trafikselskab
|hovedkvarter = [[55 Broadway]], Westminster, London
|beliggenhed =
|betjeningsområde = [[County of London|London]] og indenfor 48 km af [[Charing Cross]]
|medlemmer =
|sprog =
|leders_titel =
|leders_navn =
|hovedorganisation =
|øverste_organ =
|beslægtede =
|antal_ansatte =
|antal_frivillige =
|budget =
|website =
|bemærkninger =
The '''7 July 2005 London bombings''', sometimes referred to as '''7/7''', were a series of coordinated terrorist [[suicide attack|suicide bomb attacks]] in [[central London]] which targeted civilians using [[Transport in London|the public transport system]] during the rush hour.
'''London Passenger Transport Board''' ('''LPTB''') var en organisation, der var ansvarlig for den lokale kollektive trafik i [[London]] og omegn fra 1933 til 1948. Som med alle andre trafikselskaber i London fra 1933 til 2000 var det offentligt navn og brandet [[London Transport]].
On the morning of Thursday, 7 July 2005, four [[Islamist]] [[Islamic extremism|extremists]] separately detonated three bombs in quick succession aboard [[London Underground]] trains across the city, and later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in [[Tavistock Square]]. Fifty-two people were killed and over 700 more were injured in the attacks, making it Britain's worst terrorist incident since the 1988 bombing of [[Pan Am Flight 103]] over [[Lockerbie]], Scotland, as well as the country's first ever Islamist suicide attack.
LPTB blev dannet gennem [[London Passenger Transport Act 1933]], der trådte i kraft 13. april 1933.<ref name=RM196409>{{Cite journal |editor-first=B.W.C. |editor-last=Cooke |date=September 1964 |title=The Why and the Wherefore: London Transport Board |journal=[[Railway Magazine]] |volume=110 |issue=761 |publisher=Tothill Press |location=Westminster |page=739 }}</ref> Lovforslaget var fremsat af [[Herbert Morrison]], der var [[Transportminister (Storbritannien)|Transportminister]] i [[Labour Party|Labour]]-regeringen indtil 1931. Det lykkedes at få rullet behandlingen af lovforslaget videre til det nye parlamentariske samling under den tiltrædende nationalregering med begrundelse i, at lovforslaget var et såkaldt ''hybridforslag'', der var fremsat af staten, men havde direkte indflydelse på private organisationer. Selvom den nye regering hovedsageligt var domineret af [[Konservative Parti (UK)|de konservative]], valgte de at fortsætte med lovforslaget uden nogen markante ændringer, på trods af den omfattende overtagelse af private virksomheder til den offentlige sektor, som lovforlaget indebar.{{citation needed|date=March 2010}} 1. juli 1933 blev LPTB til, og det dækkede området "London Passenger Transport Area".<ref name=RM196409 />
The explosions were caused by homemade [[organic peroxide]]-based devices packed into [[backpack]]s. The bombings were followed two weeks later by [[21 July 2005 London bombings|a series of attempted attacks]] that failed to cause injury or damage. The 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the [[2012 Summer Olympics|2012 Olympic Games]], which had highlighted the city's multicultural reputation.<ref>Goodhart, David. ''The British Dream''. Atlantic Books, London (2013): p. 222</ref>
LPTB bestod af en formand og seks andre medlemmer. Medlemmerne blev valgt i fællesskab af besidderne af fem tillidsposter, som beskrevet i loven:
* Formanden for [[London County Council]];
{{2005 London bombings}}
* En repræsentant fra [[London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee]];
* Formanden for Committee of London Clearing Banks;
* Præsidenten for [[Law Society]]; og
* Præsidenten for [[Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales]].
===London Underground===
Loven krævede at bestyrelsesmedlemmerne skulle være ''"personer, der har stor erfaring og har vist dygtighed indenfor transport-, industrielle, kommercielle eller finansielle anliggender eller i varetagelsen af offentlige anliggender og, i tilfælde af to medlemmer, skal være personer, der har haft ikke mindre end seks års erfaring i lokaladministration indenfor London Passenger Transport Area."''<ref name="plummer">{{Cite journal| first=Alfred |last=Plummer |title=The London Passenger Transport Act of 1933: A New Socialization |work=The Quarterly Journal of Economics |volume=48 | issue=1 |date= November 1933 |pages=181–193 |doi=10.2307/1884802}}</ref>
{{Further information|Timeline of the 2005 London bombings}}
{{see also|Attacks on the London Underground}}
At 8:49 am, three bombs were detonated on board London Underground trains within fifty seconds of each other:
# The first exploded on a 6-car [[London Underground C69 and C77 Stock]] [[Circle line (London Underground)|Circle line]] sub-surface train, number 204, travelling eastbound between [[Liverpool Street station|Liverpool Street]] and [[Aldgate tube station|Aldgate]]. The train had left [[King's Cross St. Pancras tube station|King's Cross St. Pancras]] about eight minutes earlier. At the time of the explosion, the train's third car was approximately 100 yards (90&nbsp;m) along the tunnel from Liverpool Street. The parallel track of the [[Hammersmith & City line]] between Liverpool Street and [[Aldgate East tube station|Aldgate East]] was also damaged in the blast.
# The second device exploded in the second car of another 6-car London Underground C69 and C77 Stock Circle line sub-surface train, number 216, which had just left platform 4 at [[Edgware Road tube station (Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines)|Edgware Road]] and was travelling westbound towards [[London Paddington station|Paddington]]. The train had left King's Cross St. Pancras about eight minutes previously. There were several other trains nearby at the time of the explosion; an eastbound Circle line train (arriving at platform 3 at Edgware Road from Paddington) was passing next to the bombed train and was damaged,<ref name="lucky-driver">{{cite news|url=|title=I'm lucky to be here, says driver|accessdate=12 November 2006|date=11 July 2005|publisher=BBC|archiveurl=|archivedate=10 November 2006 |deadurl=no}}</ref> as well as a wall that later collapsed. Two other trains were at Edgware Road: an unidentified train on platform 2 and a southbound Hammersmith & City line service that had just arrived at platform 1.
# A third bomb was detonated on a 6-car [[London Underground 1973 Stock]] [[Piccadilly line]] deep-level Underground train, number 311, travelling southbound from King's Cross St. Pancras to [[Russell Square tube station|Russell Square]]. The device exploded approximately one minute after the service departed King's Cross, by which time it had travelled about 500 yards (450&nbsp;m). The explosion occurred at the rear of the first car of the train—number 166—causing severe damage to the rear of that car as well as the front of the second one.<ref name="north-diary">{{cite news|url=|title=Coming together as a city|accessdate=12 November 2006|date=15 July 2005|last=North|first=Rachel|publisher=BBC}}</ref> The surrounding tunnel also sustained damage.
It was originally thought that there had been six, rather than three, explosions on the Underground network. The bus bombing brought the reported total to seven; this was clarified later in the day. The erroneous reporting can be attributed to the fact that the blasts occurred on trains that were between stations, causing wounded passengers to emerge from both stations, giving the impression that there was an incident at each. Police also revised the timings of the tube blasts: initial reports had indicated that they occurred during a period of almost half an hour. This was due to initial confusion at London Underground (LU), where the explosions were originally believed to have been caused by [[Voltage spike|power surges]]. An early report, made in the minutes after the explosions, involved a person under a train, while another described a derailment (both of which did occur, but only as a result of the explosions). A [[Code amber alert (London Underground)|code amber alert]] was declared by LU at 09:19, and LU began to cease the network's operations, ordering trains to continue only to the next station and suspending all services.<ref name="tube-log">{{cite news|url=|title=Tube log shows initial confusion|accessdate=12 November 2006|date=12 July 2005|publisher=BBC News}}</ref>
Den første formand og næstformand var [[Albert Stanley, 1. Baron Ashfield|Lord Ashfield]] og [[Frank Pick]], der havde haft lignende stillinger hos [[Underground Group]]. Bestyrelsesmedlemmerne havde en embedsperiode på mellem tre og syv år og kunne genudnævnes.
The effects of the bombs are understood to have varied due to the differing characteristics of the tunnels in which they occurred:<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Indepth London Attacks|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=17 October 2009}}</ref>
* The Circle line is a "[[cut and cover]]" sub-surface tunnel, about 7&nbsp;m (21&nbsp;ft) deep. As the tunnel contains two parallel tracks, it is relatively wide. The two explosions on the Circle line were probably able to vent their force into the tunnel, reducing their destructive force.
*Lord Ashfield, 1933-1947<ref name="plummer"/><ref name="T1940">LPTB Chairman, ''The Times'', 18 April 1940</ref>
* The Piccadilly line is a deep-level tunnel, up to 30&nbsp;m (100&nbsp;ft) below the surface and with narrow (3.56&nbsp;m, or 11&nbsp;ft&nbsp;8¼&nbsp;in) single-track tubes and just 15&nbsp;cm (6&nbsp;in) clearances. This confined space reflected the blast force, concentrating its effect.
*[[Frank Pick]], 1933-1940<ref name="plummer"/><ref name="T1940"/>
*Sir John Gilbert (London County Council), 1933-1934<ref name="plummer"/>
*Sir Edward Holland (Surrey County Council), 1933-1939<ref name="plummer"/><ref>Obituaries: Sir John Gilbert, ''The Times'', 24 December 1934</ref><ref>Obituary: Sir Edward Holland, ''The Times'', 28 December 1939</ref>
*[[Patrick Ashley Cooper]], direktør i [[Bank of England]], senere Sir Patrick og guvenør for [[Hudson's Bay Company]]<ref name="plummer"/>
*Sir [[Henry Maybury]], anlægsingeniør, formand for London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee, 1933-1943<ref name="plummer"/>
*[[John Cliff]], sekretær for [[Transport and General Workers Union]], 1933-1947<ref name="plummer"/>
*[[Charles Latham, 1. Baron Latham|Charles Latham]], (London County Council) 1935-1947<ref>New member of LPTB, ''The Times'', 26 January 1935</ref><ref>LPTB appointments, ''The Times'', 10 December 1937</ref>
*Colonel Forester Clayton, 1939-1947<ref>LPTB appointments, ''The Times'', 14 March 1939</ref>
*William Charles Henry Whitney (medstifter){{cn|date=October 2014}}
*Colonel C G Vickers, 1941-47<ref name=LPTB14>14th LPTB Annual Report {{full|date=June 2016}}</ref>
*William Neville, 1946-47<ref name=LPTB14 />
*Sir Gilfrid Craig, 1944-46<ref name=LPTB13>13th LPTB Annual Report {{full|date=June 2016}}</ref>
*Sir Edward Hardy, 1946-47<ref name=LPTB13 />
*Geoffrey Hayworth, 1942-47<ref>10th LPTB Annual Report {{full|date=June 2016}}</ref>
===Tavistock Square bus===
Latham og Cliff blev formand og næstformand hos efterfølgeren [[London Transport Executive]] i 1947.
[[File:Trapped underground.jpg|thumb|thumb|Passengers trapped in a carriage aboard a bombed train between [[King's Cross St. Pancras tube station|King's Cross]] and [[Russell Square tube station|Russell Square]]]]
Almost one hour after the attacks on the London Underground, a fourth bomb was detonated on the top deck of a [[London Buses route 30|number 30]] [[double-decker bus]], a [[Dennis Trident 2]] (fleet number 17758, registration LX03&nbsp;BUF, two years in service at the time) operated by [[Stagecoach London]] and travelling its route from [[Marble Arch]] to [[Hackney Wick]].
==London Passenger Transport Area==
London Passenger Transport Area havde en omtrentlig radius på 48 km fra [[Charing Cross]] og strækte sig længere ud, end hvad der sidenhen officielt blev grænserne til [[Greater London]], til [[Baldock]] mod nord, [[Brentwood]] mod øst, [[Horsham]] mod syd og [[High Wycombe]] mod vest.
Earlier, the bus had passed through the [[Kings Cross, London|King's Cross area]] as it travelled from Hackney Wick to Marble Arch. At its final destination, the bus turned around and started the return route to Hackney Wick. It left Marble Arch at 9 am and arrived at [[Euston bus station]] at 9:35 am, where crowds of people had been evacuated from the tube and were boarding buses.
{| border=1 cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" width="600" align="center"
[[File:7 July London bombings locations.png|left|thumb|300px|Locations of the bombings on a Central London tube map]]
The explosion at 9:47 am in Tavistock Square ripped off the roof and destroyed the rear portion of the bus. The blast took place near BMA House, the headquarters of the [[British Medical Association]], on [[Upper Woburn Place]]. A number of doctors and medical staff in or near that building were able to provide immediate emergency assistance.
Witnesses reported seeing "half a bus flying through the air". [[BBC Radio 5 Live]] and ''[[The Sun (United Kingdom)|The Sun]]'' later reported that two injured bus passengers said that they saw a man exploding in the bus.<ref name="campbell-laville">{{cite news|url=|title=British suicide bombers carried out London attacks, say police|first=Duncan|last=Campbell|first2=Sandra|last2=Laville|accessdate=15 November 2006|date=13 July 2005|work=[[The Guardian]]|authorlink=Duncan Campbell (The Guardian)}}</ref>
The location of the bomb inside the bus meant the front of the vehicle remained mostly intact. Most of the passengers at the front of the top deck survived, as did those near the front of the lower deck, including the driver, but those at the rear of the bus suffered more serious injuries. The extent of the damage caused to the victims' bodies resulted in a lengthy delay in announcing the death toll from the bombing while police determined how many bodies were present and whether the bomber was one of them. Several passers-by were also injured by the explosion and surrounding buildings were damaged by debris.
The bombed bus was subsequently covered with tarpaulin and removed by low-loader for forensic examination at a secure [[Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)|Ministry of Defence]] site. The vehicle was ultimately returned to Stagecoach and scrapped thereafter on 15 October 2009. A replacement bus, a new [[Alexander Dennis Enviro400]] (fleet number 18500, which has been changed since to 19000, registration LX55&nbsp;HGC), was named "Spirit of London". In October 2012, the "Spirit of London" bus was set alight in an [[arson]] attack.<ref name=bbcarson>{{cite web|url=|title=Suspected arson on 7/7 tribute bus 'Spirit of London'|publisher=BBC News|date=20 October 2012|accessdate=25 March 2013}}</ref> It was repaired and refurbished at a cost of £60,000 and re-entered service in April 2013.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Stagecoach relaunches 'Spirit of London' bus following arson attack - Stagecoach Group|}}</ref> Two fourteen-year-old girls were charged for the attack.<ref name=bbcarson/>
{| class="wikitable centre sortable"
|+ Deaths by nationality
| {{flagu|United Kingdom}}
|colspan=2 align=center bgcolor="#ff9999"| '''London Passenger Transport Area 1933-1947'''
! 32
| {{flagu|Poland}}
! 3
[[Image:LPTA map.png|300px]]
| {{flagu|Vietnam}}
'''London Passenger Transport Area''' er skitseret i rød, med LPTB's "'''specielområde'''", hvori de havde monopol på lokal kollektiv trafik ad vej, vist med en stiplet sort streg. Den daværende politikredsgrænse af [[Metropolitan Police Service]] er vist med en stiplet blå streg, og [[County of London]] er markeret i grå. De veje, som LPTB måtte betjene udenfor sit område, er vist med stiplede røde streger.
! 2
| {{flagu|Italy}}
! 1
| {{flagu|France}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Ghana}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Afghanistan}}
! 1
| {{flagu|India}}
! 1
| {{flagu|New Zealand}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Mauritius}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Romania}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Nigeria}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Sri Lanka}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Turkey}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Iran}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Grenada}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Israel}}
! 1
| {{flagu|Kenya}}
! 1
|- class="sortbottom"
! 52
The 52 victims were of diverse backgrounds; among them were several foreign-born British nationals, foreign exchange students, parents, and one British couple of 14 years. The majority of the victims lived in or near London. Because of train delays before the attacks and subsequent transport problems caused by them, several victims died aboard trains and buses they would not normally have taken. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years old, with an average age of 34.
Indenfor specielområdet behøvede ruterne, LPTB opererede, ikke en særlig licens, og ingen person eller virksomhed måtte etablere en rute på offentlig vej uden en skriftlig tilladelse fra LPTB. I London Passenger Transport Area udenfor specielområdet måtte LPTB optage licens for at operere sine ruter.<ref>''The History of British Bus Services'', John Hibbs, Second Edition, Newton Abbot, 1979</ref>
All of the victims were UK residents. 32 of the victims were British. One victim each came from [[Afghanistan]], [[France]], [[Ghana]], [[Grenada]], [[India]], [[Iran]], [[Israel]], [[Italy]], [[Kenya]], [[Mauritius]], [[New Zealand]], [[Nigeria]], [[Romania]], [[Sri Lanka]] and [[Turkey]]. Three victims were [[Poland|Polish]] nationals, while one victim held [[Multiple citizenship|dual]] [[Vietnamese Australians|Australian-Vietnamese]] citizenship and one held dual [[Vietnamese Americans|American-Vietnamese]] citizenship.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=The 52 victims of the 7/7 bombings remembered|date=2015-07-06|language=en-GB|access-date=2016-08-25}}</ref>
Seven of the victims were at Aldgate, six at Edgware Road, twenty-six at Russell Square—including the British couple—and thirteen at Tavistock Square.
<!--do not change the date format in the file name-->[[File:Hasib Hussain leaving Boots the Chemist, King's Cross railway station, 9 am July 7, 2005.JPG|right|thumb|[[Hasib Hussain]], who detonated the bus bomb in Tavistock Square, is captured on CCTV leaving a [[Boots UK|Boots]] store on the [[London King's Cross railway station|King's Cross station]] concourse at 9&nbsp;am on 7 July 2005]]
<!--do not change the date in the file name-->[[File:July 7, 2005 London bombings CCTV.JPG|right|thumb|The four bombers captured on CCTV at [[Luton railway station|Luton station]] at 7:21&nbsp;am on 7 July 2005. From left to right: [[Hasib Hussain]], [[Germaine Lindsay]], [[Mohammad Sidique Khan]], and [[Shehzad Tanweer]].<ref>[ Image of bombers' deadly journey], BBC News, 17 July 2005. Retrieved 3 December 2006.</ref>]]
The four suicide bombers were later identified and named as:
* '''[[Mohammad Sidique Khan]]:''' aged 30. Khan detonated his bomb just after leaving Edgware Road tube station on a train travelling toward Paddington, at 8:50&nbsp;a.m. He lived in [[Beeston, Leeds|Beeston]], [[Leeds]], with his wife and young child, where he worked as a learning mentor at a primary school. The blast killed seven people, including Khan himself.
* '''[[Shehzad Tanweer]]:''' aged 22. He detonated a bomb aboard a train travelling between Liverpool Street station and Aldgate tube station, at 8:50&nbsp;a.m. He lived in Leeds with his mother and father, working in a fish and chip shop. Eight people, including Tanweer, were killed by the explosion.
* '''[[Germaine Lindsay]]:''' aged 19. He detonated his device on a train travelling between King's Cross and Russell Square tube stations, at 8:50&nbsp;a.m. He lived in [[Aylesbury]], [[Buckinghamshire]], with his pregnant wife and young son. His blast killed 27 people, including Lindsay himself.
* '''[[Hasib Hussain]]:''' the youngest of the four at 18, Hussain detonated his bomb on the top deck of a double-decker bus at 9:47&nbsp;a.m. He lived in Leeds with his brother and sister-in-law. Fourteen people, including Hussain, died in the explosion in Tavistock Square.
Three of the bombers were British-born sons of [[British Pakistanis|Pakistani immigrants]]; Lindsay was a [[conversion to Islam|convert]] born in [[British Jamaican|Jamaica]].
[[Charles Clarke]], [[Home Secretary]] when the attacks occurred, described the bombers as "[[cleanskin (security)|cleanskins]]", a term describing them as previously unknown to authorities until they carried out their attacks.<ref name="TheTimes-2007-05-06">
{{cite news
|title=The jihadi house parties of hate: Britain’s terror network offered an easy target the security sevices [sic] missed, says Shiv Malik
|work=The Times
|date=6 May 2007
|accessdate=2 August 2010
|quote=And how could Charles Clarke, home secretary at the time, claim that Khan and his associates were "clean skins" unknown to the security services?
|deadurl=bot: unknown
|archivedate=3 August 2010
}}</ref> On the day of the attacks, all four had travelled to [[Luton]], [[Bedfordshire]], by car, then to London by train. They were recorded on CCTV arriving at [[London King's Cross railway station|King's Cross station]] at about 08:30&nbsp;am.
On 12 July 2005, the BBC reported that the [[Metropolitan Police Service]]'s anti-terrorism chief [[Deputy Assistant Commissioner]] [[Peter Clarke (police officer)|Peter Clarke]] had said that property belonging to one of the bombers had been found at both the Aldgate and Edgware Road blasts.
===Videotaped statements===
Two of the bombers made videotapes describing their reasons for becoming what they called "soldiers". In a videotape broadcast by [[Al Jazeera]] on 1 September 2005, Mohammad Sidique Khan, described his motivation. The tape had been edited and also featured [[al-Qaeda]] member—and future leader—[[Ayman al-Zawahiri]]:<ref>[ London bomber: Text in full], BBC, 1 September 2005. Retrieved 14 October 2010.</ref>
{{quote|I and thousands like me are forsaking everything for what we believe. Our drive and motivation doesn't come from tangible commodities that this world has to offer. Our religion is [[Islam]], obedience to the one true God and following the footsteps of the final prophet messenger. Your democratically-elected governments continuously perpetuate atrocities against my people all over the world. And your support of them makes you directly responsible, just as I am directly responsible for protecting and avenging my Muslim brothers and sisters. Until we feel security you will be our targets and until you stop the bombing, gassing, imprisonment and torture of my people we will not stop this fight. We are at war and I am a soldier. Now you too will taste the reality of this situation.}}
A second part of the tape continues
{{quote|...I myself, I myself, I make [[dua]] (pray) to [[Allah]] ... to raise me amongst those whom I love like the [[Prophets in Islam|prophets]], the messengers, the martyrs and today's heroes like our beloved Sheikh [[Osama Bin Laden]], Dr Ayman al-Zawahri and [[Abu Musab al-Zarqawi]] and all the other brothers and sisters that are fighting in the ... of this cause.}}
On 6 July 2006, a videotaped statement by Shehzad Tanweer was broadcast by Al-Jazeera. In the video, which may have been edited<ref name="guardvideo">{{cite news|url=|title=Video of London bomber released|work=Guardian|date=8 July 2006}}</ref> to include remarks by al-Zawahiri who appeared in Khan's video, Tanweer said:
{{quote|What have you witnessed now is only the beginning of a string of attacks that will continue and become stronger until you pull your forces out of [[Afghanistan]] and [[Iraq]]. And until you stop your financial and military support to [[United States of America|America]] and [[Israel]].}}
Tanweer argued that the non-Muslims of Britain deserve such attacks because they voted for a government which "continues to oppress our mothers, children, brothers and sisters in [[State of Palestine|Palestine]], Afghanistan, Iraq and [[Chechnya]]."<ref>[ Video of London suicide bomber released], ''The Times'', 6 July 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2007; a transcript of the tape is {{cite web|url=|title=available at Wikisource|archiveurl=|archivedate=13 October 2007}}</ref>
==Effects and response==
{{Main article|Response to the 2005 London bombings}}
[[File:Blair G8 July7th05.jpg|right|thumb|250px|[[Tony Blair]] announces the attack at the [[31st G8 summit]] in Scotland]]
===Initial reports===
Initial reports suggested that a power surge on the Underground power grid had caused explosions in power circuits. This was later ruled out by power suppliers [[National Grid plc|National Grid]]. Commentators suggested that the explanation had been made because of bomb damage to power lines along the tracks; the rapid series of power failures caused by the explosions (or power being ended by means of switches at the locations to permit evacuation) looked similar, from the point of view of a control room operator, to a cascading series of circuit breaker operations that would result from a major power surge. A couple of hours after the bombings, Home Secretary Charles Clarke confirmed the incidents were terrorist attacks.<ref>{{cite web|title=Incidents in London|url=|publisher=[[United Kingdom Parliament]]|accessdate=30 July 2008}}</ref>
===Security alerts===
Although there were security alerts at many locations throughout the United Kingdom, no other terrorist incidents occurred outside central London. Suspicious packages were destroyed in controlled explosions in [[Edinburgh]], [[Brighton]], [[Coventry]], [[Southampton]], [[Portsmouth]], [[Darlington]] and [[Nottingham]]. Security across the country was increased to the [[UK Threat Levels|highest alert level]].
''[[The Times]]'' reported on 17 July 2005 that police sniper units were following as many as a dozen al-Qaeda suspects in Britain. The covert armed teams were ordered to shoot to kill if surveillance suggested that a terror suspect was carrying a bomb and he refused to surrender if challenged. A member of the Metropolitan Police's [[Specialist Firearms Command]] said: "These units are trained to deal with any eventuality. Since the London bombs they have been deployed to look at certain people."<ref>{{cite news|url=,,2087-1697326,00.html |title=Police snipers track al-Qaeda suspects |work=The Times Online |date=17 July 2005 |accessdate=3 December 2006 |location=London |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=,,2087-1697326,00.html |archivedate=22 October 2006 |first=Leo |last=Lewis }}</ref>
===Transport and telecoms disruption===
[[Vodafone]] reported that its mobile telephone network reached capacity at about 10am on the day of the bombings, and it was forced to initiate emergency procedures to prioritise emergency calls ([[ACCOLC]], the 'access overload control'). Other [[cellular network|mobile phone networks]] also reported failures. The [[BBC]] speculated that the telephone system was shut down by security services to prevent the possibility of mobile phones being used to trigger bombs. Although this option was considered, it became clear later that the intermittent unavailability of both mobile and landline telephone systems was due only to excessive usage. ACCOLC was activated only in a {{convert|1|km|1|abbr=on}} radius around Aldgate Tube Station because key emergency personnel did not have ACCOLC-enabled mobile phones.<ref>{{cite web|last=McCue|first=Andy|title=7/7 bomb rescue efforts hampered by communication failings|url=|publisher=ZDNet UK|accessdate=18 April 2012}}</ref> The communications failures during the emergency sparked discussions to improve London's [[emergency communication system|emergency communications system]].<ref>{{cite web|title=London Assembly 7 July Review Committee, follow-up re port|url=|publisher=London Assembly|accessdate=18 April 2012}}</ref>
[[File:AvoidLondon77.jpg|left|thumb|A sign on the [[M25 motorway|M25]] London orbital road warns drivers to avoid the city.]]
For most of the day, central London's public transport system was largely out of service following the complete closure of the Underground, the closure of the Zone 1 [[List of bus routes in London|bus network]], and the evacuation of incident sites such as Russell Square. Bus services restarted at 4pm on 7 July, and most mainline railway stations resumed service soon afterward. [[River Thames|River]] vessels were pressed into service to provide a free alternative to overcrowded trains and buses. Local lifeboats were required to act as safety boats, including the Sheerness lifeboat from the [[Isle of Sheppey]] in Kent. Thousands of people chose to walk home or to the nearest Zone 2 bus or railway station. Most of the Underground, apart from the stations affected by the bombs, resumed service the next morning, though some commuters chose to stay at home.
Much of King's Cross railway station was also closed, with the ticket hall and waiting area being used as a makeshift hospital to treat casualties. Although the station reopened later during the day, only suburban rail services were able to use it, with [[Great North Eastern Railway]] trains terminating at [[Peterborough railway station|Peterborough]] (the service was fully restored on 9 July). King's Cross St. Pancras tube station remained available only to [[Metropolitan line]] services to facilitate the ongoing recovery and investigation for a week, though [[Victoria line]] services were restored on 15 July and the [[Northern line]] on 18 July. [[St Pancras railway station|St. Pancras station]], located next to King's Cross, was shut on the afternoon of the attacks, with all [[Midland Mainline]] trains terminating at [[Leicester railway station|Leicester]], causing disruption to services to [[Sheffield]], [[Nottingham]] and [[Derby]].
[[File:Caledonian Road tube station closed.jpg|left|thumb|Underground stations, including [[Caledonian Road tube station|Caledonian Road]] (pictured), were closed across London]]
By 25 July there were still disruptions to the Piccadilly line (which was not running between [[Arnos Grove tube station|Arnos Grove]] and [[Hyde Park Corner tube station|Hyde Park Corner]] in either direction), the Hammersmith & City line (which was only running a shuttle service between [[Hammersmith tube station (Hammersmith & City and Circle lines)|Hammersmith]] and Paddington) and the Circle line (which was suspended in its entirety). The Metropolitan line resumed services between [[Moorgate station|Moorgate]] and [[Aldgate]] on 25 July. The Hammersmith & City line was also operating a peak-hours service between [[Whitechapel station|Whitechapel]] and [[Baker Street tube station|Baker Street]]. Most of the remainder of the Underground network was however operating normally.
On 2 August the Hammersmith & City line resumed normal service; the Circle line was still suspended, though all Circle line stations are also served by other lines. The Piccadilly line service resumed on 4 August.
===Economic effect===
[[File:Headlines london bombing 7 july 2005 Waterloo station.JPG|right|thumb|160px|Headlines outside [[London Waterloo railway station|Waterloo station]]]]
There were limited reactions to the attack in the [[world economy]] as measured by [[financial market]] and [[exchange rate]] activity. The value of the [[Pound sterling|British pound]] decreased 0.89 cents to a 19-month low against the US dollar. The [[FTSE 100 Index]] fell by about 200 points during the two hours after the first attack. This was its greatest decrease since the [[2003 invasion of Iraq|invasion of Iraq]], and it triggered the [[London Stock Exchange]]'s 'Special Measures', restricting [[panic selling]] and aimed at ensuring market stability. By the time the market closed it had recovered to only 71.3 points (1.36%) down on the previous day's three-year closing high. Markets in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain also closed about 1% down on the day.
US market indexes increased slightly, partly because the dollar index increased sharply against the pound and the euro. The [[Dow Jones Industrial Average]] gained 31.61 to 10,302.29. The [[NASDAQ|NASDAQ Composite Index]] increased 7.01 to 2075.66. The [[S&P 500]] increased 2.93 points to 1197.87 after decreasing as much as 1%. Every benchmark value gained 0.3%.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=U.S. Stocks Rise, Erasing Losses on London Bombings; Gap Rises|first=Dune|last=Lawrence|work=Bloomberg L.P.|date=7 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref>
The market values increased again on 8 July as it became clear that the damage caused by the bombings was not as great as thought initially. By end of trading the market had recovered fully to above its level at start of trading on 7 July. Insurers in the UK tend to [[reinsurance|reinsure]] their terrorist liabilities in excess of the first £75,000,000 with [[Pool Re]], a mutual insurer established by the government with major insurers. Pool Re has substantial reserves and newspaper reports indicated that claims would easily be funded.
On 9 July, the [[Bank of England]], [[HM Treasury]] and the [[Financial Services Authority]] revealed that they had instigated contingency plans immediately after the attacks to ensure that the UK financial markets could keep trading. This involved the activation of a "secret chatroom" on the British government's Financial Sector Continuity website, which allowed the institutions to communicate with the country's banks and market dealers.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Banks talked via secret chatroom|publisher=BBC News|date=8 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref>
===Media response===
[[File:Kings Cross press gazebo 1.jpg|thumb|left|[[News program|TV news]] tent at [[King's Cross railway station]]]]
Continuous news coverage of the attacks was broadcast throughout 7 July, by both [[BBC One]] and [[ITV1]], uninterrupted until 7&nbsp;p.m. [[Sky News]] did not broadcast any advertisements for 24 hours. [[ITN]] confirmed later that its coverage on ITV1 was its longest uninterrupted on-air broadcast of its 50-year history. Television coverage was notable for the use of mobile telephone footage sent in by members of the public and live pictures from traffic [[closed-circuit television|CCTV]] cameras.
The [[BBC Online]] website recorded an all-time [[bandwidth (computing)|bandwidth]] peak of 11&nbsp;[[gigabit|Gb]]/s at midday on 7 July. [[BBC News]] received some 1&nbsp;billion total accesses throughout the course of the day (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 [[terabyte]]s of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000-page requests per second for the BBC News website. The previous day's announcement of the [[2012 Summer Olympics]] being awarded to London resulted in up to 5&nbsp;[[gigabit|Gb]]/s. The previous all time maximum for the website followed the announcement of the [[Trial of Michael Jackson|Michael Jackson verdict]], which used 7.2&nbsp;[[gigabit|Gb]]/s.<ref>{{cite web|url=|archiveurl=|archivedate=3 July 2007|title=Statistics on BBC Webservers 7&nbsp;July&nbsp;2005|publisher=BBC Online|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref>
On 12 July it was reported that the [[British National Party]] released leaflets showing images of the 'No. 30 bus' after it was destroyed. The slogan, "Maybe now it's time to start listening to the BNP" was printed beside the photo. Home Secretary Charles Clarke described it as an attempt by the BNP to "cynically exploit the current tragic events in London to further their spread of hatred".<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Politics BNP campaign uses bus bomb photo|publisher=BBC News|date=12 July 2005|accessdate=17 October 2009|archiveurl=|archivedate=26 October 2009 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
Some media outside the UK complained that successive British governments had been unduly tolerant towards radical [[Islamist]] militants, so long as they were involved in activities outside the UK.<ref name=NYTJuly8>{{cite news|url=|title=For a Decade, London Thrived as a Busy Crossroads of Terror|first1=Elaine|last1=Sciolino|first2=Don|last2=van Natta, Jr.|work=The New York Times|date=10 July 2005|accessdate=8 July 2008}}</ref> Britain's claimed reluctance to extradite or prosecute terrorist suspects resulted in London being dubbed ''[[Londonistan (term)|Londonistan]]'' by the columnist Melanie Phillips (a term similar to that used by American anti-Semites referring to 'Jew York').<ref>Philips, Melanie. ''Londonistan''. Encounter Books, 2006, p. 189 ff.</ref>
===Claims of responsibility===
Even before the identity of the bombers became known, former Metropolitan Police commissioner [[John Stevens, Baron Stevens of Kirkwhelpington|Lord Stevens]] said he believed they were almost certainly born or based in Britain, and would not "fit the caricature al-Qaeda fanatic from some backward village in Algeria or Afghanistan".<ref>{{cite news|title=Police appeal for bombing footage|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=10 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|archiveurl=|archivedate=23 November 2006 |deadurl=no}}</ref> The attacks would have required extensive preparation and prior reconnaissance efforts, and a familiarity with bomb-making and the London transport network as well as access to significant amounts of bomb-making equipment and chemicals.
Some newspaper editorials in [[Iran]] blamed the bombing on British or American authorities seeking to further justify the [[War on Terror]], and claimed that the plan that included the bombings also involved increasing harassment of [[Islam in Europe|Muslims in Europe]].<ref>{{cite news|title=Iran press blames West for blasts|url= |work=BBC News| date=11 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|first=Frances|last=Harrison|archiveurl=| archivedate=20 November 2006 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
On 13 August 2005, quoting police and [[MI5]] sources, ''The Independent'' reported that the bombers acted independently of an al-Qaeda terror mastermind some place abroad.<ref>{{cite news|title=London bombings: the truth emerges|url=|first=Jason|last=Bennetto|author2=Ian Herbert|work=The Independent|date=13 August 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref>
On 1 September it was reported that al-Qaeda [[n:Al-Qaida claims responsibility for London 7/7 bombings|officially claimed responsibility]] for the attacks in a videotape broadcast by the Arab television network Al Jazeera. However, an official inquiry by the British government reported that the tape claiming responsibility had been edited after the attacks, and that the bombers did not have direct assistance from al-Qaeda.<ref>{{cite news|url= |title=Leak reveals official story of London bombings UK news The Observer|work=Guardian|date=9 April 2006|accessdate=17 October 2009|first=Mark|last=Townsend}}</ref> Zabi uk-Taifi, an al-Qaeda commander arrested in Pakistan in January 2009, may have had connections to the bombings, according to Pakistani intelligence sources.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Al-Qaeda commander linked to 2005 London bombings led attacks on Nato convoys|work=The Telegraph|date=22 January 2009|accessdate=5 February 2009|first1=Dean|last1=Nelson|first2=Emal|last2=Khan|archiveurl=|archivedate=30 January 2009 |deadurl=no}}</ref> More recently, documents found by German authorities on a terrorist suspect arrested in Berlin in May 2011 have suggested that [[Rashid Rauf]], a British al Qaeda operative, played a key role in planning the attacks.<ref>Robertson, Nic Cruickshank, Paul and Lister, Tim (30 April 2012) [ "Documents give new details on al Qaeda's London bombings"]</ref>
====Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades====
A second claim of responsibility was posted on the Internet by another al-Qaeda-linked group, [[Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades]]. The group had, however, previously falsely claimed responsibility for events that were the result of technical problems, such as the [[2003 London blackout]] and the US [[Northeast blackout of 2003]].<ref>{{cite news|title=Tube blasts "almost simultaneous"|url=|first=Chris|last=Johnston|work=The Guardian|date=9 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|location=London}}</ref>
===Conspiracy theories===
[[File:Russell square police road.JPG|thumb|right|Police cordon off [[Russell Square]] on 7 July 2005.]]
A survey of 500 British Muslims undertaken by [[Channel 4 News]] in 2007 found that 24% believed the four bombers blamed for the attacks did not perform them.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Survey: 'government hasn't told truth about 7/7'|last=Soni|first=Darshna|date=4 June 2007|publisher=Channel 4 News|accessdate=12 August 2009}}</ref> In 2006, the government had refused to hold a public inquiry, stating that "it would be a ludicrous diversion". Prime Minister [[Tony Blair]] said an independent inquiry would "undermine support" for MI5, while the leader of the opposition, [[David Cameron]], said only a full inquiry would "get to the truth".<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=7/7 leader: more evidence reveals what police knew|work=The Guardian|date=3 May 2007|accessdate=17 October 2009|location=London|first1=Helen|last1=Carter|first2=Vikram|last2=Dodd|first3=Ian|last3=Cobain}}</ref> In reaction to revelations about the extent of security service investigations into the bombers prior to the attack, the [[Shadow Home Secretary]], [[David Davis (British politician)|David Davis]], said: "It is becoming more and more clear that the story presented to the public and [[Parliament of the United Kingdom|Parliament]] is at odds with the facts."<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=7/7 leader: more evidence reveals what police knew|first=Vikram|last=Dodd|work=The Guardian|date=3 May 2007|accessdate=20 December 2007|location=London}}</ref> However, the decision against an independent public inquest was later reversed. A full public inquest into the bombings was subsequently begun from October 2010. Coroner Lady Justice Hallett stated that the inquest would examine how each victim died and whether MI5, if it had worked better, could have prevented the attack.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=7/7 bombs acts of 'merciless savagery', inquests told|publisher=BBC News|date=11 October 2010|accessdate=15 May 2012}}</ref>
There have been various [[Conspiracy theory|conspiracy theories]] proposed about the bombings, including the suggestion that the bombers were '[[wikt:patsy|patsies]]', based on claims about timings of the trains and the train from Luton, supposed explosions underneath the carriages, and allegations of the faking of the one time-stamped and dated photograph of the bombers at Luton station.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Seeing isn't believing|last=Honingsbaum|first=Mark|date=27 June 2006|work=The Guardian|accessdate=12 August 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=7/7: the conspiracy theories|last=Soni|first=Darshna|date=4 June 2007|work=Channel 4 News|accessdate=12 August 2009}}</ref> Claims made by one theorist in the Internet video ''[[7/7 Ripple Effect]]'' were examined by the BBC documentary series ''[[The Conspiracy Files]]'', in an episode titled "7/7" first broadcast on 30 June 2009, which debunked many of the video's claims.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Unmasking the mysterious 7/7 conspiracy theorist|date=30 June 2009|work=BBC News Magazine|accessdate=12 August 2009|archiveurl=|archivedate=6 July 2009 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
On the day of the bombings [[Peter Power (crisis management specialist)|Peter Power]] of Visor Consultants gave interviews on BBC Radio 5 Live and [[ITV (TV network)|ITV]] saying that he was working on a crisis management simulation drill, in the [[City of London]], "based on simultaneous bombs going off precisely at the railway stations where it happened this morning", when he heard that an attack was going on in real life. He described this as a coincidence. He also gave an interview to the ''[[Manchester Evening News]]'' where he spoke of "an exercise involving mock broadcasts when it happened for real".<ref>Manchester Evening News "King's Cross Man's Crisis Course", 8 July 2005</ref> After a few days he dismissed it as a "spooky coincidence" on Canadian TV.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=BBC4 ''Coincidence of bomb exercises?'' 17 July 2005 |accessdate=2007-05-14 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl= |archivedate=14 May 2007 |df=dmy }}</ref>
===Initial results===
{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:right;"
! colspan=2 | Number of fatalities
| Aldgate || 7
| Edgware Road || 6
| King's Cross || 26
| Tavistock Square || 13
! Total number of fatal victims || 52
| Suicide bombers || 4
! Total fatalities || 56
Initially, there was much confused information from police sources as to the origin, method, and even timings of the explosions. Forensic examiners had thought initially that military-grade [[plastic explosives]] were used, and, as the blasts were thought to have been simultaneous, that synchronised timed detonators were employed. This hypothesis changed as more information became available. Home-made organic peroxide-based devices were used, according to a May 2006 report from the British government's [[Intelligence and Security Committee]].<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Report into the London Terrorist Attacks on 7&nbsp;July 2005|author=Intelligence and Security Committee|date=May 2006|page=11|format=PDF|publisher=BBC News}}</ref> The explosive was [[acetone peroxide|triacetone triperoxide]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Explosives linked to London bombings identified|last=Vince|first=Gaia|date=15 July 2005|website=New Scientist|language=en-US}}</ref>
Fifty-six people, including the four suicide bombers, were killed by the attacks<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=List of the bomb blast victims|accessdate=7 July 2007|date=20 July 2005|publisher=BBC News}}</ref> and about 700 were injured, of whom about 100 were hospitalised for at least one night. The incident was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the United Kingdom since the 1988 bombing of [[Pan Am Flight 103]], which crashed on Lockerbie and killed 270 people, and the deadliest bombing in London since the Second World War.<ref>{{cite web|title=London Bomb Rescuers Were Hindered by Communications|author=Brian Lysaght and Alex Morales|url=|publisher=[[Bloomberg L.P.|Bloomberg]]|date=5 June 2006|accessdate =5 August 2012}}</ref>
Police examined about 2,500 items of CCTV footage and [[forensic evidence]] from the scenes of the attacks. The bombs were probably placed on the floors of the trains and bus.
Investigators identified four men who they alleged had been the suicide bombers. This made the bombings the first ever suicide attack in the British Isles.<ref>{{cite news|first=Dan|last=Eggen|author2=Scott Wilson|title=Suicide Bombs Potent Tools of Terrorists|url=|work=The Washington Post|date=17 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref> [[Nicolas Sarkozy]], the interior minister and future [[President of France]], caused consternation at the British [[Home Office]] when he briefed the press that one of the names had been described the previous year at an Anglo-French security meeting as an asset of British intelligence. Home Secretary Charles Clarke said later that this was "not his recollection."
[[Vincent Cannistraro]], former head of the [[Central Intelligence Agency]]'s anti-terrorism centre, told ''The Guardian'' that "two unexploded bombs" were recovered as well as "mechanical timing devices", although this claim was explicitly rejected by London's Metropolitan Police Service.<ref>{{cite news|first=Hugh|last=Muir|author2=Rosie Cowan|title=Four bombs in 50 minutes – Britain suffers its worst-ever terror attack|url=,,1523819,00.html|archiveurl=,,1523819,00.html|archivedate=17 December 2007|work=The Guardian|date=8 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|location=London}}</ref>
===Police raids===
[[West Yorkshire Police]] raided six properties in the Leeds area on 12 July: two houses in Beeston, two in [[Thornhill, West Yorkshire|Thornhill]], one in [[Holbeck]] and one in Alexandra Grove in [[Hyde Park, Leeds]]. One man was arrested. Officers also raided a residential property on Northern Road in the Buckinghamshire town of [[Aylesbury]] on 13 July.
The police service say a significant amount of explosive material was found in the Leeds raids and a [[controlled explosion]] was carried out at one of the properties. Explosives were also found in the vehicle associated with one of the bombers, Shehzad Tanweer, at Luton railway station and subjected to controlled explosion.<ref name="campbell-laville"/><ref>{{cite news|title=London bombers "were all British"|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=12 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=One London bomber died in blast|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=12 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|archiveurl=|archivedate=16 December 2006 |deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=The suicide bomb plot hatched in Yorkshire|url=|first=Jason|last=Bennetto|author2=Ian Herbert|work=The Independent|date=13 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|location=London}}</ref>
===Luton cell===
There was speculation about a possible association between the bombers and another alleged Islamist cell in [[Luton]] which was ended during August 2004. The Luton group was uncovered after [[Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan]] was arrested in [[Lahore]], Pakistan. His laptop computer was said to contain plans for tube attacks in London, as well as attacks on financial buildings in New York City and Washington, D.C. The group was subject to surveillance but on 2 August 2004 ''[[The New York Times]]'' published Khan's name, citing Pakistani sources. The news leak forced police in Britain and Canada to make arrests before their investigations were complete. The US government later said they had given the name to some journalists as "[[Journalism sourcing|background information]]", for which [[Tom Ridge]], the [[United States Secretary of Homeland Security]], apologised.
When the Luton cell was ended, one of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan (no known relation), was scrutinised briefly by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not surveilled.<ref>{{cite news|title=MI5 judged bomber "no threat"|url=,,2087-1697562,00.html|work=The Times Online|first=David|last=Leppard|date=17 July 2005|accessdate=3 December 2006|location=London}}</ref>
===March 2007 arrests===
On 22 March 2007, three men were arrested in connection with the bombings. Two were arrested at 1&nbsp;pm at [[Manchester Airport]], attempting to board a flight bound for [[Pakistan]] that afternoon. They were apprehended by undercover officers who had been following the men as part of a surveillance operation. They had not intended to arrest the men that day, but believed they could not risk letting the suspects leave the country. A third man was arrested in the Beeston area of Leeds at an address on the street where one of the suicide bombers had lived before the attacks.<ref>{{cite news|title=Three held over 7&nbsp;July&nbsp;bombings|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=22 March 2007|accessdate=1 January 2010|archiveurl=|archivedate=11 January 2010 |deadurl=no}}</ref>
===May 2007 arrests===
On 9 May 2007 police made four further arrests, three in [[Yorkshire]] and one in [[Selly Oak]], Birmingham. Hasina Patel, widow of the presumed ringleader Mohammed Sidique Khan, was among those arrested for "commissioning, preparing or instigating acts of terrorism".<ref name="ringleader">{{cite news|title=Police quiz 7&nbsp;July&nbsp;bomber's widow|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=9 May 2007|accessdate=1 January 2010}}</ref>
Three of those arrested, including Patel, were released on 15 May.<ref name="ringleader"/> The fourth, Khalid Khaliq, an unemployed single father of three, was charged on 17 July 2007 with possessing an al-Qaeda training manual, but the charge was not related to the 2005 London attacks. Conviction for possession of a document containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism carried a maximum ten-year jail sentence.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=UK Man bailed over 'al-Qaeda manual'|publisher=BBC News|date=21 May 2007|accessdate=17 October 2009}}</ref>
===Deportation of Abdullah el-Faisal===
[[Abdullah el-Faisal]] was deported to Jamaica, his country of origin, from Britain on 25 May 2006 after reaching the parole date in his prison sentence. He was found guilty of three charges of soliciting the murder of Jews, Americans and Hindus and two charges of using threatening words to incite racial hatred in 2003 and, despite an appeal, was sentenced to seven years imprisonment. In 2006 [[John Reid, Baron Reid of Cardowan|John Reid]] alleged to MPs that el-Faisal had influenced Jamaican-born Briton Germaine Lindsay into participating in the 7/7 bombings.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=UK Race hate cleric Faisal deported|publisher=BBC News|date=25 May 2007|accessdate=17 October 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=England London , 'Hate preacher' loses his appeal|publisher=BBC News|date=17 February 2004|accessdate=17 October 2009}}</ref>
===Investigation of Mohammad Sidique Khan===
''The Guardian'' reported on 3 May 2007 that police had investigated Mohammad Sidique Khan twice during 2005. The newspaper said it "learned that on 27 January 2005, police took a statement from the manager of a garage in Leeds which had loaned Khan a courtesy car while his vehicle was being repaired." It also said that "on the afternoon of 3 February an officer from [[Scotland Yard]]'s anti-terrorism branch carried out inquiries with the company which had insured a car in which Khan was seen driving almost a year earlier". Nothing about these inquiries appeared in the report by Parliament's intelligence and security committee after it investigated the 7 July attacks. Scotland Yard described the 2005 inquiries as "routine", while security sources said they were related to the fertiliser bomb plot.
===Reports of warnings===
While no warnings before the 7 July bombings have been documented officially or acknowledged, the following are sometimes quoted as indications either of the events to come or of some foreknowledge.
* One of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan, was briefly scrutinised by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not put under surveillance.<ref name=NOTHREAT>[,,2087-1697562,00.html MI5 judged bomber "no threat"] The Times Online</ref>
* Some news stories, current a few hours after the attacks, questioned the British government's contention that there had not been any warning or prior intelligence. It was reported by [[CBS News]] that a senior Israeli official said that British police told the [[Embassy of Israel, London|Israeli embassy in London]] minutes before the explosions that they had received warnings of possible terror attacks in the UK capital. An AP report used by a number of news sites, including ''[[The Guardian]]'', attributed the initial report of a warning to an Israeli "Foreign Ministry official, speaking on condition of anonymity", but added Foreign Minister [[Silvan Shalom]]'s later denial on [[Israel Defense Forces Radio]]: "There was no early information about terrorist attacks." A similar report on the site of right-wing Israeli paper ''Israel National News/Arutz Sheva'' attributed the story to "Army Radio quoting unconfirmed reliable sources."<ref name=REPORT>[ Report: Israel was warned ahead of first blast] Arutz Sheva – {{webarchive |url= |date=21 July 2005 }}</ref> Although the report has been retracted, the original stories are still circulated as a result of their presence on the news websites' archives.
* In an interview with the Portuguese newspaper ''[[Público (Portugal)|Público]]'' a month after the [[2004 Madrid train bombings]], Syrian-born cleric [[Omar Bakri Muhammad]] warned that "a very well-organised" London-based group which he called "al-Qaeda Europe" was "on the verge of launching a big operation."<ref name=BAKRI>{{cite web|url= |title=Gulf Times |publisher=Gulf Times |accessdate=17 October 2009| archiveurl=| archivedate= 3 September 2009 | deadurl= no}}</ref> In December 2004, Bakri vowed that, if Western governments did not change their policies, Muslims would give them "a 9/11, day after day after day."<ref name=NYTJuly8/>
* According to a 17 November 2004 post on the ''[[Newsweek]]'' website, US authorities in 2004 had evidence that terrorists were planning a possible attack in London. In addition, the article stated that, "fears of terror attacks have prompted FBI agents based in the [[Embassy of the United States, London|U.S. embassy in London]] to avoid travelling on London's popular underground railway (or tube) system."<ref>[ Terror Watch: The Real Target? – Newsweek National News –] at – {{webarchive |url= |date=18 November 2004 }}</ref>
* In an interview published by the German magazine ''[[Bild|Bild am Sonntag]]'' dated 10 July 2005, [[Meir Dagan]], director of the Israeli intelligence agency [[Mossad]], said that the agency's office in London was alerted to the impending attack at 8:43 am, six minutes before the first bomb detonated. The warning of a possible attack was a result of an investigation into an earlier terrorist bombing in [[Tel Aviv]], which may have been related to the London bombings.<ref>at</ref>
===Anwar al-Awlaki===
''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'' reported that radical imam [[Anwar al-Awlaki]] inspired the bombers.<ref>{{cite news|url=|location=London|work=The Daily Telegraph|title=Fort Hood shooting: radical Islamic preacher also inspired July&nbsp;7 bombers|first1=Philip|last1=Sherwell|first2=Duncan|last2=Gardham|date=23 November 2009}}</ref> The bombers transcribed lectures of al-Awlaki while plotting the bombings. His materials were found in the possession of accused accomplices of the suicide bombers. Awlaki has also been linked to the [[2006 Ontario terrorism plot]] in Canada, the [[2007 Fort Dix attack plot]] in New Jersey, the [[2009 Fort Hood shooting]] in Texas, and the failed attack on [[Northwest Airlines Flight 253]], a commercial flight from Amsterdam to Detroit, on Christmas Day, 2009.<ref>{{cite news| url=|work=The Los Angeles Times|title=Fort Hood suspect's contact with cleric spelled trouble, experts say|first1=Sebastian|last1=Rotella|first2=Josh|last2=Meyer|date=12 November 2009}}</ref> Al-Awlaki was killed by a US drone attack in 2011.
===Independent inquest===
In October 2010 an independent coroner's inquest of the bombings began.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Coroner's Inquest into the London bombings of 7 July 2005 ||accessdate=15 July 2012}}</ref> [[Heather Hallett|Lady Justice Hallett]] was appointed to hear the inquest, which would consider both whether the attacks were preventable, and the emergency service response to them.
After seven months of evidence and deliberation, the verdict of the inquiry was released and read in the Houses of Parliament on 9 May 2011. It determined that the 52 victims had been unlawfully killed; their deaths could not have been prevented, and they would probably have died "whatever time the emergency services reached and rescued them". Hallett concluded that MI5 had not made every possible improvement since the attacks but that it was not "right or fair" to say more attention should have been paid to ringleader Mohammad Sidique Khan prior to 7 July. She also decided that there should be no public inquiry.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=7/7 inquest – WMS|publisher=Home Office|date=9 May 2011|accessdate=16 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|publisher=BBC News|title=7/7 inquests: Emergency delays 'did not cause deaths'|date=6 May 2011}}</ref>
The report provided nine recommendations to various bodies:<ref>{{cite news|url=|location=London|work=The Guardian|first=Paul|last=Owen|title=7/7 inquest verdict – Friday 6&nbsp;May&nbsp;2011|date=6 May 2011}}</ref>
# With reference to a photograph of Khan and Shehzad Tanweer which was so badly cropped by MI5 that the pair was virtually unrecognisable to the US authorities asked to review it, the inquiry recommended that procedures be improved so that humans asked to view photographs are shown them in best possible quality.
# In relation to the suggestion that MI5 failed to realise the suspects were important quickly enough, the inquiry recommended that MI5 improves the way it records decisions relating to suspect assessment.
# The inquiry recommended that 'major incident' training for all frontline staff, especially those working on the Underground, is reviewed.
# With regards to the facts that London Underground (LU) is unable to declare a 'major incident' itself and that LU was not invited to an emergency meeting at Scotland Yard at 10:30 am on the morning of the bombings, the inquiry recommends that the way [[Transport for London]] (TfL) and the London [[Urban resilience|resilience]] team are alerted to major incidents and the way the emergency services are informed is reviewed.
# Regarding the confusion on 7 July 2005 over the emergency rendezvous point, it was recommended that a common initial rendezvous point is permanently staffed and advised to emergency services;
# In response to the evidence that some firefighters refused to walk on the tracks at Aldgate to reach the bombed train because they had not received confirmation that the electric current had been switched off, the inquiry recommended a review into how emergency workers confirm whether the current is off after a major incident.
# A recommendation was made that TfL reviewed the provision of stretchers and [[first aid]] equipment at Underground stations.
# Training of London Ambulance Service (LAS) staff of "multi-casualty triage" should be reviewed, following concerns in the inquest that some casualties were not actually treated by paramedics who had triaged them.
# A final recommendation was made to the [[Department of Health (United Kingdom)|Department of Health]], the [[Mayor of London]] and the London resilience team to review the capability and funding of emergency medical care in the city.
===Newspaper phone hacking===
It was revealed in July 2011 that relatives of some of the victims of the bombings may have had their telephones accessed by the ''[[News of the World]]'' in the aftermath of the attacks. The revelations added to an existing [[News International phone hacking scandal|controversy over phone hacking]] by the tabloid newspaper.
The fathers of two victims, one in the Edgware Road blast and another at Russell Square, told the BBC that police officers investigating the alleged hacking had warned them that their contact details were found on a target list, while a former firefighter who helped injured passengers escape from Edgware Road also said he had been contacted by police who were looking into the hacking allegations.<ref>{{cite news|url=|publisher=BBC News|title=News of the World 'hacked 7/7 family phones'|date=6 July 2011}}</ref> A number of survivors from the bombed trains also revealed that police had warned them their phones may have been accessed and their messages intercepted, and in some cases officers advised them to change security codes and PIN numbers.<ref>{{cite web|last=Hutchinson|first=Lisa|url=|title=Tyneside 7/7 bombings survivor Lisa French has been contacted by detectives investigating News of the World phone hacking scandal.|publisher=ChronicleLive|date=7 July 2011|accessdate=16 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=London bombing survivor threatens to sue over hacking|publisher=Kent News|date=8 July 2011|accessdate=16 September 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Susan Ryan|url=|title=Warnings of potential Irish victims of NOTW phone hacking||date=7 July 2011|accessdate=16 September 2011}}</ref>
[[File:TrFlagsmall1b.jpg|thumb|People observing a two-minute silence in [[Trafalgar Square]] on the evening of 14 July 2005]]
[[File:7 7 Hyde Park 090712.jpg|thumb|The [[7 July Memorial]] in [[Hyde Park, London|Hyde Park]]]]
{{main article|7 July 2005 London bombings memorials and services}}
Since the bombings, the United Kingdom and other nations have honoured the victims in several ways. Most of these memorials have included moments of silence, candlelit vigils, and the laying of flowers at the attack sites. Foreign leaders have also remembered the dead by ordering their flags to be flown at [[half-mast]], signing books of condolences at embassies of the UK, and issuing messages of support and condolences to the British people.
===United Kingdom===
The government ordered the [[Union Flag]] to be flown at half-mast on 8 July.<ref>(7 July 2005). "[ Union Flag to Fly at Half-Mast]". UTV. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> The following day, the [[Bishop of London]] led prayers for the victims during a service paying tribute to the role of women during the Second World War. A vigil, called by the [[Stop the War Coalition]], [[Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament]] and [[Muslim Association of Britain]], was held from 5&nbsp;pm, at Friends Meeting House on Euston Road.
A two-minute silence was held on 14 July 2005 throughout Europe.<ref>(10 July 2005). "[,16132,1525387,00.html Europe to Mark Tragedy With Two Minutes of Silence]". ''The Guardian''. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> Thousands attended a vigil at 6 pm on [[Trafalgar Square]]. After an initial silence there was a series of speakers for two hours. A memorial service was held at [[St Paul's Cathedral]] on 1 November 2005.<ref>(1 November 2005). "[ Tributes Paid to Bombing Victims]". BBC. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> To mark the first anniversary of the attack, a two-minute silence was observed at midday across the country.<ref>(7 July 2006). "[ Nation Remembers 7 July Victims]". BBC News. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref>
A [[7 July Memorial|permanent memorial was unveiled]] in 2009 by [[Charles, Prince of Wales|Prince Charles]] in [[Hyde Park, London|Hyde Park]] to mark the fourth anniversary of the bombings.<ref>{{cite news| url=|publisher=BBC News|title=Tributes paid at 7&nbsp;July memorial|date=7 July 2009}}</ref> On the eve of the ninth anniversary of the attacks in 2014 the memorial was defaced with messages including "Blair lied, thousands died". The graffiti was removed within hours.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=7/7 survivors condemn defacement of memorial on ninth anniversary|last=Tran|first=Mark|date=7 July 2014|work=The Guardian|accessdate=7 July 2014}}</ref>
During the [[2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony|opening ceremony of the 2012 Olympic Games]] in London a minute's silence was held to commemorate those killed in the attacks.
US President [[George W. Bush]] visited the British embassy the day after the bombings, upon his return from the G8 summit in Scotland, and signed a book of condolence.<ref>{{cite web|date=8 July 2005|url=|title=President Signs Book of Condolence at British Embassy||accessdate=16 April 2008}}</ref> In Washington, D.C., the US Army band played "[[God Save the Queen]]" (the British national anthem, the melody of which is also used in an American patriotic hymn, "[[My Country, 'Tis of Thee]]"), a suggestion that US Army veteran John Miska made to Vice Chief of Staff General Cody, outside the [[British Embassy, Washington|British embassy in the city]].<ref>(7 July 2005). "[ U.S. raises terror alert for transit systems – 7 July 2005]". CNN. Retrieved 16 April 2008.</ref> On 12 July, a [[Detroit Symphony Orchestra]] brass ensemble played the British national anthem during the pre-game festivities of the [[2005 Major League Baseball All-Star Game|Major League Baseball All-Star Game]] at [[Comerica Park]] in Detroit.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Rating the game: Clemens, dugout humor spice it up|date=13 July 2005|accessdate=15 January 2010|first=Mike|last=Dodd|newspaper=USA Today}}</ref>
Flags were ordered to fly at half-mast across Australia, New Zealand<ref name=NZflags>(8 July 2005). "[ No Known New Zealand Casualties in London]". Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> and Canada.<ref name=Canadaflag>(1 September 2005). "[ Half Masting of the Flag]". Canadian Heritage. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> The Union Flag was raised to half-mast alongside the [[Flag of Australia]] on [[Sydney Harbour Bridge]] as a show of "sympathy between nations".<ref>(3 September 2009). "[]". Australian National Flag Association. Retrieved 6 February 2011.</ref>
Moments of silence were observed in the [[European Parliament]], the [[Sejm of the Republic of Poland|Polish parliament]] and by the [[Government of Ireland|Irish government]]<ref>(12 July 2005) "[ Government Calls for Two Minutes Silence]", and in Cyprus. Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref> on 14 July. The British national anthem was played at the changing of the royal guard at [[Plaza de Oriente]] in Madrid in memorial to the victims of the attacks. The ceremony was attended by the British ambassador to Spain and members of the [[Spanish Royal Family]]. After the 2004 Madrid train bombings, the UK had hosted a similar ceremony at [[Buckingham Palace]].<ref>(13 July 2005). "[ Spain Royal Guard Honours London]". BBC. Retrieved 4 September 2007.</ref>
Gennem lovgivningen overtog LPTB de følgende anliggender:
===Jernbaner=See also==
* [[2007 London car bombs]]
*[[Underground Electric Railways Company of London]], der kontrollerede:
* [[Death of Jean Charles de Menezes]]
** [[London Electric Railway]], bestyrerselskabet af:
* [[Murder of Lee Rigby]]
*** [[Baker Street & Waterloo Railway|Bakerloo line]]
* [[September 11 attacks]]
*** [[Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway|Piccadilly line]]
* [[2004 Madrid train bombings]]
*** [[Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway|Hampstead & Highgate line]] (nu [[Northern line]]s Charing Cross-, Edgware- og High Barnet-grene)
* [[November 2015 Paris attacks]]
** [[City and South London Railway]] (nu Northern lines Bank- og Morden-grene)
** [[CentralDecember 2015 London RailwayUnderground attack]]
** [[District2016 RailwayBrussels bombings]]
{{Portal bar|London|Terrorism|2000s}}
* [[Metropolitan Railway]], der kontrollerede:
** [[Northern City Line|Great Northern & City Railway]]
*[[London County Council Tramways]] (269 km rute, inklusive spor ejet af Borough of Leyton og City of London og 1.713 sporvogne)
*[[Middlesex County Council]] (68,6 km rute, leaset til Metropolitan Electric Tramways)
*[[Hertfordshire County Council]] (34,6 km rute, leaset til Metropolitan Electric Tramways)
*[[City of London]] (0,4 km rute, opereret af London County Council)
*[[Municipal Borough of Barking|Barking]] Corporation (opereret af Ilford Corporation, London County Council og East Ham Corporation siden 1929) (2,9 km rute)
*[[Municipal Borough of Bexley|Bexley]] og [[Municipal Borough of Dartford|Dartford]] Urban District Councils (fælles foretagende siden 1921) (16,6 km rute og 33 sporvogne)
*[[Croydon Corporation Tramways]] (14,9 km rute og 55 sporvogne)
*[[East Ham Corporation Tramways]] (13,4 km rute og 56 sporvogne)
*[[Erith Urban District Council Tramways]] (6,4 km)
*[[Ilford Urban District Council Tramways]] (11,5 km rute og 40 sporvogne)
*[[Leyton Urban District Council Tramways|Leyton Corporation Tramways]] (opereret af London County Council siden 1921) (14,5 km rute)
*[[Walthamstow Urban District Council Light Railways]] (14,4 km rute og 62 sporvogne)
*[[West Ham Corporation Tramways]] Corporation (26,2 km rute og 134 sporvogne)
*[[London United Tramways]] (46,8 km rute, 150 sporvogne og 61 [[trolleybus]]ser)
*[[Metropolitan Electric Tramways]] (86,1 km rute, hvoraf 15,1 km var ejet af selskabet, 74,4 km leaset fra Middlesex County Council og 34,6 km fra Hertfordshire County Council, samt 316 sporvogne)
*[[South Metropolitan Electric Tramways]] (21,1 km rute og 52 sporvogne)<ref>''London's Trams and Trolleybuses'', John R. Day, published by London Transport 1979</ref>
==Further reading==
===Busser og rutebiler===
* London General, London General Country Services, Overground, Tilling & British Automobile Traction, Green Line Coaches
==Videre historie==
* ISBN 978-1-844675-456; [[Tariq Ali|Ali, Tariq]]; ''[[Rough Music: Blair, Bombs, Baghdad, London, Terror]]''; (2005)
LPTB var bemyndiget til at indgå koordineringsaftaler med fjerntogsjernbaneselskaberne angående deres forstadsruter.
92 transportforetagender inkl. datterselskaber, med en samlet kapital på ca. £120 millioner, kom ind under LPTB. Bybusser, trolleybusser, undergrundstog og sporvogne blev malet rød ("Underground Red" eller "London General Red"), mens rutebiler og busser på landet blev malet grøn, med rutebilerne brandet "[[Green Line Coaches]]". "U<small>NDERGROUN</small>D"-branding, der allerede var i brug på det meste af de dybtliggende "tube"-baner, blev udvidet til alle baner og stationer. Navnet siges at være opfundet af [[Albert Stanley, 1. Baron Ashfield]] i 1908, da han var administrerende direktør for [[Underground Electric Railways Company of London|Underground Group]].
;Official reports
LPTB igangsatte et £35 millioner kapitalinvesteringsprogram, der udvidede trafikken og ombyggede mange eksisterende aktiver, de fleste under paraplyen "[[New Works Programme]]" fra 1935 til 1940. Selvom kun ca. £21 millioner af kapitalen blev brugt før 2. verdenskrig, medførte det forlængelser til Central, Bakerloo, Northern og Metropolitan lines, nye tog og vedligeholdelsesdepoter, omfattende ombygninger af mange centralt beliggende stationer (så som Aldgate East), og udskiftning af størstedelen af sporvognsnetværket til, hvad der skulle blive et af verdens største trolleybussystemer. I løbet af denne periode blev to ikoner for London Transport set for første gang: [[London Underground 1938-materiel|1938-tubetog]] og [[AEC Regent III RT|RT-bussen]]. Selvom programmet blev nedskåret og forsinket af 2. verdenskrigs udbrud, leverede det også nogle nøgleelementer af de nuværende overjordiske dele af Underground-systemet. Den mest dybdegående ændring, der blev gennemført af bestyrelsen gennem programmet, var gennem overgangen fra sporvejs- til trolleybusdrift som tidligere omtalt. I 1933 opererede LPTB 526 rutekilometer sporveje og 29 rutekilometer med trolleybuses. I 1948 var disse summer hhv. 164 og 410 kilometer. Sporvognene forsvandt endegyldigt i 1952, og dette blev mødt med beklagelser blandt dele af personalet og befolkningen, men med henblik på brugerpåvirkning var dette formentlig den mest synlige og dramatiske ændring i perioden.
* [ Greater London Authority report] ''(PDF)''
* [ House of Commons report] ''(PDF)''
* [ Intelligence and Security Committee report – May 2006] ''(PDF)''
* [ Intelligence and Security Committee report – May 2009] ''(PDF)''
;Medical report
LPTB fortsatte med at udvikle selskabsidentiteten, design og reklamer, der var iværksat af Underground Group. Dette omfattede stationer designet af [[Charles Holden]], busgarager af arkitekter som Wallis, Gilbert & Partners, og flere beskedne konstruktioner så som busstoppesteder og læskure. Plakaterne og markedsføring fra LPTB var ofte i eksemplarisk kvalitet og er stadig meget eftertragtede.
* [ The account of the doctor leading the team at the scene of the Tavistock Square bus bomb]. Retrieved 11 August 2005
;Radio broadcasts;
LPTB blev i 1948 erstattet af London Transport Executive gennem [[Transport Act 1947]]. De blev reelt nationaliseret, men med betydelig selvbestemmelse. LPTB fortsatte med at eksistere som en juridisk enhed indtil likvidation 23. december 1949.<ref>{{Cite journal |last= |first= |author=|authorlink= |coauthors= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |date=February 1950 |title=Main-Line Companies Dissolved |journal=[[The Railway Magazine]] |volume=96 |issue=586 |page=73 |publisher=Transport (1910) Ltd |location=London }}</ref>
* [ The Jon Gaunt show] originally broadcast live at 9:00&nbsp;am on 7 July 2005 on [[BBC London]]. First mention of events at approximately 27 minutes into the broadcast.
* [ Images of the victims]
* T C Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport, Volume two – the Twentieth Century to 1970, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1974
* [ Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet writes about posters honouring the terrorists]
== Eksterne henvisninger ==
* [ Official inquest transcripts]
* 2016 [[BBC News]] interview [ with the brother-in-law of Mohammad Sidique Khan]
{{wikinews|Coordinated terrorist attack hits London}}
{{Commons category|London bombing, July 2005}}
==Eksterne henvisninger==
* [ The Railway Archive – London Passenger Transport Act, 1933] (25 [[Megabyte|MB]])
{{coord wd|region=GB|type=event}}
{{succession box| before=Adskillige andre | title=Trafikselskab i London | years=1933–1948 | after=[[London Transport Executive]]}}
[[Kategori:TransportLondons i Londonhistorie]]
[[Kategori:TrafikselskaberTerrorhandlinger i England]]
[[Kategori:EtableretBegivenheder i 19332005]]
[[Kategori:OphørtMassakrer i 1948Storbritannien]]