Canberra er Australiens hovedstad med 410.301 indbyggere. Byen er den eneste større by i Australien, som ikke ligger ved kysten. Den er beliggende i den nordlige del af hovedstadsterritoriet Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 280 km sydvest for Sydney og 660 km nordøst for Melbourne.
I 1901 da Australien blev samlet til et land, planlagde man at bygge byen Canberra. Beliggenheden blev valgt i 1908 som et kompromis mellem Australiens to rivaliserende byer Sydney og Melbourne. I 1927 blev byen hovedstad for Australien.
Canberra har mange statsinstitutioner, men langt færre industri– og handelsvirksomheder end andre store australske byer.
Canberra (Skriptfejl: Intet modul med navnet "IPAc-en".) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory; 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne.
On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies of Australia was achieved. Section 125 of the new Australian Constitution provided that land, situated in New South Wales and at least 100 miles (160 km) from Sydney, would be ceded to the new federal government. Following discussion and exploration of various areas within New South Wales, the Seat of Government Act 1908 was passed in 1908 which specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region. The land was transferred to the Commonwealth by New South Wales in 1911 creating the Australian Capital Territory, two years prior to the capital city being founded and formally named as Canberra in 1913.
It is unusual among Australian cities, being an entirely planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D.C. in the United States or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913. The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles, hexagons and triangles, and was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation.
As the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is home to many important institutions of the federal government, national monuments and museums. This includes Parliament House, the official residence of the monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance such as the Australian War Memorial, the Australian National University, the Royal Australian Mint, the Australian Institute of Sport, the National Gallery, the National Museum and the National Library. The city is also home to many important institutions of the Australian Defence Force including the Royal Military College Duntroon and the Australian Defence Force Academy. It also hosts the majority of foreign embassies in Australia as well as regional headquarters of many international organisations, not-for-profit groups, lobbying groups and professional associations.
Canberra does not have a local council or city government like other Australian cities. The Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly performs the roles of both a city council for the city and a territory government for the rest of the Australian Capital Territory. The vast majority of the population of the Territory reside in Canberra though and the city is therefore the primary focus of the ACT Government. However, the federal government maintains authority over the Territory and may overturn local laws. It still maintains control over the area known as the Parliamentary Triangle through the National Capital Authority.
At the Skabelon:CensusAU, the population of Canberra was 395,790. As the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of gross territory product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although not the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is lower and the average income higher; tertiary education levels are higher, while the population is younger.
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- Wigmore, Lionel (1971). Canberra: History of Australia's National Capital. Canberra: Dalton Publishing Company. ISBN 0-909906-06-8.
- Williams, Dudley (2006). The Biology of Temporary Waters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852811-6.
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De brølende fyrrere (en: Roaring Forties) er kraftige vestenvinde på den sydlige halvkugle, som overvejende er mellem 40 og 50 grader syd. De kraftige vinde skyldes en kombination af flere ting: Luft fra Ækvator presses mod Sydpolen, jordens rotation og kun få landmasser til at bryde vinden.
De brølende fyrrere var en stor hjælp til sejlskibe, som fulgte Brouwers rute fra Europa til Ostindien eller Australien during the Age of Sail, and in modern usage are favoured by yachtsmen on round-the-world voyages and competitions. The boundaries of the Roaring Forties are not consistent, and shift north or south depending on the season. Similar but stronger conditions occurring in more southerly latitudes are referred to as the Furious Fifties and the Shrieking or Screaming Sixties.
Hot air rises at the Equator and is pushed towards the poles by cooler air travelling towards the Equator (an atmospheric circulation feature known as the Hadley Cell). At about 30 degrees from the equator, the outward-travelling air sinks to lower altitudes, and continues toward the poles closer to the ground (the Ferrel Cell), then rises up again from about 60 degrees as the air joins the Polar vortex. This travel in the 30 to 60 degree zone combines with the rotation of the earth to move the air currents from west to east, creating westerly winds.
Unlike in the northern hemisphere, the large tracts of open ocean south of the 40th parallel south (interrupted only by Tasmania, New Zealand, and the southern part of South America) allow higher windspeeds to develop. Similar but stronger wind conditions prevalent closer to the South Pole are referred to as the "Furious Fifties" (50 to 60 degrees south), and the "Shrieking" or "Screaming Sixties" (below 60 degrees south). The latitude ranges for the Roaring Forties and similar winds are not consistent, shifting towards the South Pole in the southern summer, and towards the Equator in the southern winter.
Use for sailingRediger
During the Age of Sail, ships travelling from Europe to the East Indies or Australasia would sail down the west coast of Africa and round the Cape of Good Hope to use the Roaring Forties to speed their passage across the Indian Ocean, then on the return leg, continue eastwards across the Pacific Ocean and south of Cape Horn before sailing up the east coast of the Americas to home. It was first used by Dutch explorer Hendrik Brouwer in his Brouwer Route, discovered in 1611, which effectively halved the duration of the trip from Europe to Java.[kilde mangler] "To run the easting down" was the phrase used to describe the fast passages achieved in the Roaring Forties.
- Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt
<ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet
- Macquarie Dictionary (6 udgave). Sydney: Macquarie Dictionary Publishers. 2013. Entry "Canberra". ISBN 9781876429898.
- Lewis, Wendy; Balderstone, Simon; Bowan, John (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. s. 106. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
- Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt
<ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet
- Catchpole, Heather (20. september 2007). "Roaring forties". In Depth. ABC Science. Hentet 7. april 2011.
- "Exploring the Southern Ocean". Eco-Photo Explorers. 21 December 2009. Hentet 7 April 2011.
- "Roaring Forties". The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. (2007). Red. Dear, I. C. B.. Oxford Reference Online, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860616-8. OCLC 60793921. Hentet 14 April 2011.
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