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Skabt ved at oversætte siden "Central solar heating"
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(Skabt ved at oversætte siden "Central solar heating")
'''Solvarmeanlæg''' er et anlæg der laver centralvarme og varmt vand fra [[solenergi]] ved et system, hvor vandet opvarmes centralt af arrays af solfangere og distribueret via [[fjernvarme]] rør-netværk.
 
For fjernvarmeanlæg samlere kan i stedet være installeret på jorden.
 
Central solvarme kan omfatte large-scale [[Akkumuleringsbeholder|termisk lagring]], skalering fra døgnets opbevaring til [[Geologisk varmelager|sæsonåben thermal energy storage]] (STES). Termisk lagring øge sol brøkdel - forholdet mellem sol-energi gevinst, at den samlede efterspørgsel efter energi i systemet - for solvarmeanlæg. Ideelt set er målet for anvendelse af sæsonlagring er at lagre solenergi, der er indsamlet i sommeren til vinter måned.
 
Compared to small solar heating systems (solar combisystems), central solar heating systems have better price-performance ratios due to the lower installation price, the higher thermal efficiency and less maintenance. In some countries such as [[Danmark|Denmark]] large-scale solar district heating plants are financially fully competitive to other forms of heat generation.
 
Central solar systems can also be used for solar cooling in the form of [[Fjernkøling|district cooling]]. In this case, the overall efficiency is high due to the high correlation between the energy demand and the solar radiation.
[[Fil:Marstal.powerplant.1.jpg|thumb|Marstal central solar heating, with an area of 18,365 m². It covers a third of Marstal's heat consumption.]]
 
== Largest CSHPs ==
{| class="wikitable sortable"
!Name
!Country
!Owner
!Solar collector size
!Thermal<br /><br />Power
!Annual<br /><br />production
!Installation<br /><br />year
!Storage<br /><br />volume
!Storage type<br /><br />Facilities
!Collector manufacturer
|-
!
!
!
!m²
![[Watt|MW<sub>th</sub>]]
!GWh
!
!m³
!
!
|-
|[[Silkeborg]]
|DK
|Silkeborg Fjernvarme
|157,000
|110
|80
|2016
|64,000
|Water tank
|ARCON (DK)<ref name="ing2017-01-10">{{Cite web|url=https://ing.dk/artikel/verdens-stoerste-solfangeranlaeg-drift-silkeborg-191730|title=Verdens største solfangeranlæg i drift i Silkeborg|first=Sanne|last=Wittrup|website=[[Ingeniøren]]|date=10 January 2017}}</ref><ref name="ing2016-07-15">{{Cite web|url=https://ing.dk/artikel/verdens-stoerste-solvarmeanlaeg-paa-vej-ved-silkeborg-185541|title=Verdens største solvarmeanlæg på vej ved Silkeborg|first=René|last=Kornum|website=[[Ingeniøren]]|date=15 July 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.euroheat.org/news/record-breaking-solar-heating-system-ready-time/|title=Record-breaking solar heating system ready on time|website=Euroheat & Power|date=9 January 2017|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref><ref name="mistral">{{Cite web|url=http://dbdh.dk/record-breaking-solar-heating-system-ready-on-time/|title=DBDH – Record-breaking solar heating system ready on time|publisher=|date=9 January 2017|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref>
|-
|[[Vojens]]
|DK
|[[Vojens]] Fjernvarme
|70,000
|50
|35
|2012-2015
|203,000
|Insulated water pond<br /><br />Water tank
|ARCON (DK)<ref name="ing2015-06-14">{{Cite web|url=http://ing.dk/artikel/verdens-stoerste-damvarmelager-indviet-i-vojens-176776|title=Verdens største damvarmelager indviet i Vojens|first=Sanne|last=Wittrup|website=[[Ingeniøren]]|date=14 June 2015|access-date=2015-11-01|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151019125824/http://ing.dk/artikel/verdens-stoerste-damvarmelager-indviet-i-vojens-176776|archivedate=2015-10-19}}</ref>
|-
|[[Port Augusta (Australien)|Port Augusta]], [[South Australia]]
|[[Australien|Australia]]
|Sundrop Farms
|51,500
|36.4
|
|2016
|
|
|Aalborg CSP. <small>Desalination for vegetables. 1.5 MW electricity<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://ship-plants.info/solar-thermal-plants/227-solar-concentrating-systems-to-offer-wide-array-of-uses-australia?gross_area_min=10000|title=Sundrop Farms Port Augusta|publisher=|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref><ref name="sa.gov">{{Cite web|url=http://www.portaugusta.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Council%20Development%20Assessment%20Panel%20Agenda%20and%20Report%20_123%2012%20August%202014.pdf|title=COUNCIL DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT PANEL AGENDA Meeting #123|date=2014-08-12|access-date=2015-10-14|website=Port Augusta City Council|publisher=Port Augusta City Council|last=|first=}}</ref> </small>
|-
|[[Gram (Haderslev Kommune)|Gram (Denmark)]]
|
|
|44,801
|31
|20.8
|2009-
|122,000
|<small>Insulated water pond. <br /><br />10MW electric boiler<br /><br />900&nbsp;kW heat pump </small>
|<ref>[http://www.danskfjernvarme.dk/~/media/danskfjernvarme/gronenergi/projekter/drejebog%20om%20store%20varmepumper/inspirationskatalog.pdf Inspirationskatalog for store varmepumpeprojekter i fjernvarmesystemet] page 59. November 2014</ref><ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Gram in South-West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Gabriela Mistral, El Loa, [[Atacamaørkenen|Atacama Desert]]
|[[Chile]]
|CODELCO mine
|43,920
|27-34
|52-80
|2013
|4,300
|Water tank
|ARCON (DK). <small>Supplies an electrowinning copper process<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://arcon-sunmark.com/cases/codelco-minera-gaby-chile|title=Copper mine - Atacama Desert, Chile|website=Arcon-Sunmark|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/chile-consistent-electrolytic-bath-temperature-control-increases-copper-cathode-quality|title=Chile: Consistent Electrolytic Bath Temperature Control Increases Copper Cathode Quality|publisher=Solarthermalworld.org|last=Baerbel Epp|date=28 November 2016|access-date=12 January 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170112222001/http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/chile-consistent-electrolytic-bath-temperature-control-increases-copper-cathode-quality|archivedate=12 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://ship-plants.info/solar-thermal-plants/130-codelco-gabriela-mistral-chile?gross_area_min=10000|title=Codelco Gabriela Mistral|publisher=|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref> </small>
|-
|[[Dronninglund]]
|DK
|
|37,573
|26
|18
|2014
|60,000
|Insulated water pond
|ArCon (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Dronninglund in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Zhongba, 4,700 metres altitude<ref>{{Cite web|title=Zhongba Xian|url=https://mapcarta.com/14904600|website=Mapcarta|language=en}}</ref>
|Tibet (China)
|
|34,650
|
|20
|2019
|15,000
|Water tank
|ArCon<ref name="tibet2019">{{Cite web|last=Baerbel|first=Epp|title=Second Arcon-Sunmark SDH system up and running in Tibet|url=https://www.solarthermalworld.org/news/second-arcon-sunmark-sdh-system-and-running-tibet|website=Solarthermalworld|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20200113023119/https://www.solarthermalworld.org/news/second-arcon-sunmark-sdh-system-and-running-tibet|archivedate=2020-01-13|language=en|date=25 November 2019}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title=Major solar district heating project in China|url=https://www.euroheat.org/news/industry-news/major-solar-district-heating-project-china/|website=Euroheat & Power|date=25 June 2019}}</ref>
|-
|[[Ringkøbing]]
|DK
|
|30,000
|22.6
|14
|2010-2014
|
|
|ArCon<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Ringkøbing in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Brønderslev]]
|DK
|
|27,000
|16.6
|
|
|8,000
|Water tank
|[[Koncentreret solkraft|CSP]] parabolic trough<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/denmark-concentrating-solar-collectors-district-heat-northern-europe|title=Denmark: Concentrating Solar Collectors for District Heat in Northern Europe|website=www.solarthermalworld.org|first=Baerbel|last=Epp|date=11 August 2017|access-date=12 November 2017}}</ref><ref>[http://www.solarthermalworld.org/sites/gstec/files/news/file/2017-08-04/full_paper_broenderslev_bp_eurosun_2016.pdf CSP plant combined with biomass CHP using ORC-technology]</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title=Aalborg CSP-Brønderslev CSP with ORC project|date=17 May 2017|url=https://solarpaces.nrel.gov/aalborg-csp-bronderslev-csp-orc-project|website=solarpaces.nrel.gov}}</ref>
|-
|Langkazi, 4,600 metres altitude<ref name="lz">{{Cite web|title=Langkazi Xian|url=https://mapcarta.com/14906718|website=Mapcarta|language=en}}</ref>
|Tibet (China)
|
|22,000
|
|
|2018
|15,000
|Insulated water pond
|ArCon<ref>{{Cite web|title=“SDH – a proven technology with a long track record of success”|last=Baerbel|first=Epp|url=https://www.solarthermalworld.org/news/sdh-proven-technology-long-track-record-success|website=Solarthermalworld|language=en|date=29 January 2019}}</ref>
|-
|[[Hjallerup]]
|DK
|
|21,432
|
|
|
|
|
|<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Hjallerup in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Vildbjerg
|DK
|
|21,234
|14.5
|9.5
|2014
|
|
|ArCon<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Vildbjerg in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Helsinge Kommune|Helsinge]]
|DK
|Helsinge Fjernvarme
|19,588
|14
|9.4
|2012-2014
|
|
|<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Helsinge in East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Hadsund]]
|DK
|Hadsund Fjernvarme
|20,513
|14
|11.5
|2015
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Hadsund in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Nykøbing Sjælland]]
|DK
|
|20,084
|14
|9.5
|
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Nykøbing Sjælland in East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Gråsten]]
|DK
|
|19,024
|13
|9.7
|2012
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Gråsten in South Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Brædstrup
|DK
|Brædstrup Fjernvarme
|18,612
|14
|8.9
|2007/2012
|5,000 <br /><br /> 19,000
|<small>Water tank<br /><br /> Borehole storage, insulated by [[Konkylie|seashells]]</small>
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Brædstrup in Central Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Tarm (by)|Tarm]]
|DK
|
|18,585
|13.1
|9
|2013
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Tarm in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Marstal]]
|DK
|Marstal Fjernvarme
|17,943
|13.5
|8.5
|1996–2002
|2,100 <br /><br /> 3,500 <br /><br /> 75,000
|<small>Water tank<br /><br /> Sand/water ground pit<br /><br /> Insulated water pond</small>
|Sunmark / ARCON (DK). Feeds 0.75 MW ORC turbine<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Marstal in South Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://sunstore4.eu/understand/examples-of-sunstore4/|title=Sunstore 4 - 100% Renewable District Heating|publisher=Sunstore|access-date=29 April 2017|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170226051202/http://sunstore4.eu/understand/examples-of-sunstore4/|archivedate=26 February 2017}}</ref>
|-
|Jetsmark
|DK
|
|15,183
|10.6
|7.6
|2015
|
|
|Arcon/Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Jetsmark in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Oksbøl
|DK
|
|14,745
|9.9
|7.7
|2010/2013
|
|
|Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Oksbøl in West Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Jægerspris]]
|DK
|
|13,405
|8.6
|6
|2010
|
|
|Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Jægerspris in East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Syd[[Langeland]]
|DK
|
|12,500
|7.5
|7.5
|2013
|
|
|Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Langeland in South Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Grenaa]]
|DK
|
|12,096
|8.4
|5.8
|2014
|
|
|Arcon (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Grenaa in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Syd[[Falster]]
|DK
|
|12,094
|8.5
|6
|2011
|
|
|Arcon (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Falster in South-East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Hvidebæk
|DK
|
|12,038
|8.6
|5.7
|2013
|
|
|Arcon (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Hvidebæk in East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Sæby]]
|DK
|Sæby Fjernvarme
|11,866
|8
|6.3
|2011
|
|
|Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Sæby in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Toftlund
|DK
|
|11,000
|7.4
|5.4
|2013
|
|
|Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Toftlund in South Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Kungälv
|SE
|Kungälv Energi AB
|10,048
|7.0
|4.5
|2000
|1,000
|Water tank
|ARCON (DK)
|-
|Svebølle-Viskinge
|
|
|10,000
|5.3
|5
|2011/2014
|
|
|<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Svebølle-Viskinge in East Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|[[Karup]]
|DK
|
|8,063
|5.4
|3.7
|2013
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Karup in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Strandby
|DK
|Strandby Varmeværk
|8,000
|5.6
|3.6
|2007
|
|
|ARCON (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Strandby in North Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|Nykvärn
|SE
|Telge Energi AB
|7,500
|5.3
|3.4
|1985
|1,500
|Water tank
|Teknoterm (SE) <br /><br />ARCON (DK)
|-
|[[Crailsheim]]
|DE
|
|7,300
|
|
|2012
|37,500
|Borehole
|Wagner, Schüco, Aquasol, Asgard<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/solar-district-heating-crailsheim-seasonal-borehole-storage|title=Solar District Heating in Crailsheim with Seasonal Borehole Storage - Solarthermalworld|publisher=|access-date=29 April 2017}}</ref><ref>http://www.stw-crailsheim.de/stadtwerke-crailsheim/top-themen/projekt-solaranlage.html</ref>
|-
|[[Ærøskøbing]]
|DK
|[[Ærø|Ærøsk]]<nowiki/>øping Fjernvarme
|7,050
|3.4
|3
|1998/2010
|1,200
|Water tank
|ARCON/Sunmark (DK)<ref>[http://www.solvarmedata.dk/index.asp?secid=228 Current data on Danish solar heat plants] (click Ærøskøping in South Denmark, then "About the plant")</ref>
|-
|La Parreña mine
|[[Mexico]]
|Peñoles
|6,270
|4,4
|
|
|660
|Water tank
|<small>ARCON (DK). Supplies an electrowinning process<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/mexico-second-solar-process-heat-case-study-copper-mining|title=Mexico: Second Solar Process Heat Case Study on Copper Mining|publisher=Solarthermalworld.org|last=Baerbel Epp|date=1 December 2016|access-date=12 January 2017}}</ref> </small>
|-
|Falkenberg
|SE
|Falkenberg Energi AB
|5,500
|3.9
|2.5
|1989
|1,100
|Water tank
|Teknoterm (SE) <br /><br />ARCON (DK)
|-
|Neckarsulm
|DE
|Stadtwerke Neckarsulm
|5,044
|3.5
|2.3
|1997
|25,000
|Soil duct heat exchanger
|Sonnenkraft (DE) <br /><br />ARCON (DK)
|-
|Ulsted
|DK
|Ulsted Fjernvarme
|5,000
|3.5
|2.2
|2006
|1,000
|Water tank
|ARCON (DK)
|-
|Friederichshafen
|DE
|Technische Werke Fried.
|4,250
|3.0
|1.9
|1996
|12,000
|Concrete tank in ground
|ARCON (DK)
|}
<nowiki>
[[Kategori:Fjernvarme]]</nowiki>
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