Nitrous oxide, commonly known as happy gas or laughing gas, is a chemical compound with the chemical formulaN2O. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative drug. It is also used as anoxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. For example, nitrous oxide in a test tube will re-ignite a smoldering splint.

Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone and is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. Nitrous oxide is also a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide.[1]

"Laughing gas" (name)Rediger

Scientist Humphrey Davy introduced nitrous oxide to the public (primarily the British upper class) as a recreational drug at "laughing gas parties" in 1799, 36 years before it was used medically. The effects of the gas can make the user feel stuporous, dreamy and sedated. While some people, in a state of induced euphoria by the gas, can sometimes "get the giggles" and erupt in laughter and overall amusement. At his parties, the audience was amused by watching the user's "nitrous oxide capers," which included stumbling around, slurred speech and falling down.[2]


Nitrous oxide is most commonly prepared by careful heating of ammonium nitrate, which decomposes into nitrous oxide and water vapor.[3] The addition of various phosphates favors formation of a purer gas at slightly lower temperatures. One of the earliest commercial producers was George Poe in Trenton, New Jersey.[4]

NH4NO3 (s) → 2 H2O (g) + N2O (g)

This reaction occurs between 170 - 240 °C, temperatures where ammonium nitrate is a moderately sensitive explosive and a very powerful oxidizer. Above 240 °C the exothermic reaction may accelerate to the point of detonation, so the mixture must be cooled to avoid such a disaster. Superheated steam is used to reach reaction temperature in some turnkey production plants.[5]

Downstream, the hot, corrosive mixture of gases must be cooled to condense the steam, and filtered to remove higher oxides of nitrogen. Ammonium nitrate smoke, as an extremely persistent colloid, will also have to be removed. The cleanup is often done in a train of 3 gas washes; namely base, acid and base again. Any significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) may not necessarily be absorbed directly by the base (sodium hydroxide) washes.

The nitric oxide impurity is sometimes chelated out with ferrous sulfate, reduced with iron metal, or oxidised and absorbed in base as a higher oxide. The first base wash may (or may not) react out much of the ammonium nitrate smoke, however this reaction generates ammonia gas, which may have to be absorbed in the acid wash.

Other routesRediger

The direct oxidation of ammonia may someday rival the ammonium nitrate pyrolysis synthesis of nitrous oxide mentioned above. This capital-intensive process, which originates in Japan, uses a manganese dioxide-bismuth oxide catalyst:[6]

2 NH3 + 2 O2 → N2O + 3 H2O

Higher oxides of nitrogen are formed as impurities. In comparison, uncatalyzed ammonia oxidation (i.e. combustion or explosion) goes primarily to N2 and H2O.

Nitrous oxide can be made by heating a solution of sulfamic acid and nitric acid. Many gases are made this way in Bulgaria.[kilde mangler][7]

HNO3 + NH2SO3H → N2O + H2SO4 + H2O

There is no explosive hazard in this reaction if the mixing rate is controlled. However, as usual, toxic higher oxides of nitrogen form.

Nitrous oxide is produced in large volumes as a by-product in the synthesis of adipic acid; one of the two reactants used in nylon manufacture.[8][9] This might become a major commercial source, but will require the removal of higher oxides of nitrogen and organic impurities. Currently much of the gas is decomposed before release for environmental protection. Greener processes may prevail that substitute hydrogen peroxide for nitric acid oxidation; hence no generation of oxide of nitrogen by-products.

Hydroxylammonium chloride can react with sodium nitrite to produce N2O as well:

NH3OH+Cl + NaNO2 → N2O + NaCl + 2 H2O

If the nitrite is added to the hydroxylamine solution, the only remaining byproduct is salt water. However, if the hydroxylamine solution is added to the nitrite solution (nitrite is in excess), then toxic higher oxides of nitrogen are also formed.


Rocket motorsRediger

Nitrous oxide can be used as an oxidizer in a rocket motor. This has the advantages over other oxidizers that it is non-toxic and, due to its stability at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. As a secondary benefit it can be readily decomposed to form breathing air. Its high density and low storage pressure enable it to be highly competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems.

In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fueled rocket. Nitrous oxide has been the oxidizer of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidizer). The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It is also notably used inamateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel.

Nitrous oxide can also be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of approximately 1300 °C. Because of the large release the catalytic action rapidly becomes secondary as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this can provide a monopropellant specific impulse (Isp) of as much as 180s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters (monopropellant or bipropellant with nitrogen tetroxide), the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating.

Specific impulse (Isp) can be improved by blending a hydrocarbon fuel with the nitrous oxide inside the same storage tank, becoming a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFB) monopropellant. This storage mixture does not incur the danger of spontaneous ignition, since N2O is chemically stable. When the nitrous oxide decomposes by a heated catalyst, high temperature oxygen is released and rapidly ignites the hydrocarbon fuel-blend. NOFB monopropellants are capable of Isp greater than 300 seconds, while avoiding the toxicity associated with hypergolic propulsion systems.[10][11] The low freezing point of NOFB eases thermal management compared to hydrazine and dinitrogen tetroxide—a valuable property on a spacecraft which may contain quantities of cryogenic propellant.

Internal combustion engineRediger

  Hovedartikel: Nitrous.

In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide (often referred to as just "nitrous" or as NOS after the name of the brand Nitrous Oxide Systems) allows the engine to burn more fuel and air, resulting in a more powerful combustion. The gas itself is not flammable, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures.

Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid; the evaporation and expansion of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature, resulting in a denser charge, further allowing more air/fuel mixture to enter the cylinder. Nitrous oxide is sometimes injected into (or prior to) the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject right before the cylinder (direct port injection) to increase power.

The technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. Originally meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to extremely high altitudes. Accordingly, it was only used by specialized planes like high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft,high-speed bombers, and high-altitude interceptor aircraft.

One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine. Very large power increases are possible, and if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be severely damaged or destroyed during this kind of operation. It is very important with nitrous oxide augmentation of internal combustion engines to maintain properoperating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "preignition", or "detonation" (sometimes referred to as "knocking" or "pinging"). Most problems that are associated with nitrous do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since nitrous allows a much denser charge into the cylinder it dramatically increases cylinder pressures. The increased pressure results in heat, and heat will cause many problems from melting the piston, valves or warping the head/cracking or predetonation.

Aerosol propellantRediger

Fil:Nitrous oxide - 10 x 8g.jpg
An 8g canister of nitrous oxide intended for use as a whipped cream aerating agent

The gas is approved for use as a food additive (also known as E942), specifically as an aerosol spray propellant. Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters, cooking sprays, and as an inert gas used to displace oxygen, to inhibit bacterial growth, when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods.

The gas is extremely soluble in fatty compounds. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam. Used in this way, it produces whipped cream four times the volume of the liquid, whereas whipping air into cream only produces twice the volume. If air were used as a propellant, oxygen would accelerate rancidification of the butterfat; nitrous oxide inhibits such degradation. Carbon dioxide cannot be used for whipped cream because it is acidic in water, which would curdle the cream and give it a seltzer-like 'sparkling' sensation.

However, the whipped cream produced with nitrous oxide is unstable and will return to a more or less liquid state within half an hour to one hour. Thus, the method is not suitable for decorating food that will not be immediately served.

Similarly, cooking spray, which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin (an emulsifier), may use nitrous oxide as apropellant; other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane.

Users of nitrous oxide often obtain it from whipped cream dispensers that use nitrous oxide as a propellant (see above section), for recreational use as a euphoria-inducing inhalant drug. It is not harmful in small doses, but risks due to lack of oxygen do exist (see Recreational use below).

In medicineRediger

Nitrous oxide has been used for anesthesia in dentistry since the 1840s. The most common use is as a 50:50 mix with oxygen(commonly known as Entonox or Nitronox) delivered through a demand valve; it is frequently used to relieve pain associated with childbirth,trauma, oral surgery, and heart attacks.

Professional use can involve constant-supply flowmeters, which allow the proportion of nitrous oxide and the combined gas flow rate to be individually adjusted. Nitrous oxide is typically administered by dentists through a demand-valve inhaler over the nose that only releases gas when the patient inhales through the nose.

Because nitrous oxide is minimally metabolized, it retains its potency when exhaled into the room by the patient and can pose an intoxicating and prolonged-exposure hazard to the clinic staff if the room is poorly ventilated. Where nitrous oxide is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or nitrous-scavenging system is used to prevent waste-gas buildup.

Nitrous oxide is a weak general anesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anesthesia. In general anesthesia it is used as a carrier gas in a 2:1 ratio with oxygen for more powerful general anesthetic agents such as sevoflurane or desflurane. It has a MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) of 105% and a blood:gas partition coefficient of 0.46. Less than 0.004% is metabolised in humans.

Recreational useRediger


Skabelon:Refimprove Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a dissociative drug that can cause analgesia, depersonalization, derealization,dizziness, euphoria, and some sound distortion.[12] Research has also found that it increases suggestibility andimagination.[13]

Since the earliest uses of nitrous oxide for medical or dental purposes, it has also been used recreationally as an inhalant, because it causes euphoria and slight hallucinations. Only a small number of recreational users (such as dental office workers or medical gas technicians) have legal access to pure nitrous oxide canisters that are intended for medical or dental use. Most recreational users obtain nitrous oxide from compressed gas containers which use nitrous oxide as a propellant for whipped cream or from automotive nitrous systems.[kilde mangler]Recreational users should be aware that inhaling nitrous oxide from tanks used in automotive systems is unsafe because Sulfur Dioxide, a toxic gas, is mixed in around 100 ppm specifically to discourage substance abuse. [14]

Users typically inflate a balloon or a plastic bag with nitrous oxide from a tank or a one-use 'charger', and then inhale the gas for its effects. Highly compressed liquid expelled from a tank or canister is extremely cold, and is thus dangerous to inhale directly. Thus, for medical and recreational use, nitrous oxide is first decompressed into some receptacle, such as a balloon. Mis-cracked canisters can cause skin damage due to freezing temperatures. Users may also inhale nitrous oxide directly from pre-packaged whipped cream canisters, where it is used as propellant.[kilde mangler]

Recreational users typically do not mix it with air or oxygen and thus may risk injury or death from anoxia if they tie plastic bags around their heads or otherwise obstruct their breathing.[kilde mangler]

Nitrous oxide can be habit-forming because of its short-lived effect (generally from 0.1 – 1 minutes in recreational doses). Long-term use in excessive quantities has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia due to reduced hemopoiesis, neuropathy,tinnitus, and numbness in extremities, unless vitamin B12 supplements are taken to counteract this. Pregnant women should not use nitrous oxide as chronic use is teratogenic and foetotoxic. One study in mice found that long term exposure to high doses of nitrous oxide may lead to Olney's lesions that may become persistent.[15]


Medical grade nitrous oxide tanks used in dentistry

Nitrous oxide shares many pharmacological similarities with other inhaled anesthetics, but there are a number of differences. Nitrous oxide is relatively non-polar, has a low molecular weight, and high lipid solubility. As a result, it can quickly diffuse intophospholipid cell membranes.

Like many other classical anesthetics, nitrous oxide's exact mechanism of action is still open to some conjecture. It acts as an NMDA receptorantagonist at partial pressures similar to those used in general anaesthesia. The evidence on the effect of N2O on GABAA receptor currently is mixed, but tends to show a lower potency potentiation via acting as a positive allosteric modulator of the receptor.[16] N2O, like other volatile anesthetics, activates twin-pore potassium channels, albeit weakly. These channels are largely responsible for keeping neurons at the resting (unexcited) potential.[17] Unlike many anesthetics, however, N2O does not seem to affect calcium channels.[16]

Unlike most general anesthetics, N2O appears to affect the GABA receptor. In many behavioral tests of anxiety, a low dose of N2O is a successful anxiolytic. This anti-anxiety effect is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. Mirroring this, animals which have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to nitrous oxide.[18] Indeed, in humans given 30% N2O, benzodiazepine receptor antagonists reduced the subjective reports of feeling “high”, but did not alter psycho-motor performance.[19]

The effects of N2O seem linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descendingnoradrenergic system. When animals are given morphine chronically they develop tolerance to its analgesic (pain killing) effects; this also renders the animals tolerant to the analgesic effects of N2O.[20] Administration of antibodies which bind and block the activity of some endogenous opioids (not beta-endorphin), also block the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[21] Drugs which inhibit the breakdown of endogenous opioids also potentiate the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[21] Several experiments have shown that opioid receptor antagonists applied directly to the brain block the antinociceptive effects of N2O, but these drugs have no effect when injected into the spinal cord.

Conversely, alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists block the antinociceptive effects of N2O when given directly to the spinal cord, but not when applied directly to the brain.[22] Indeed, alpha2B-adrenoreceptor knockout mice or animals depleted in noradrenaline are nearly completely resistant to the antinociceptive effects of N2O.[23] It seems N2O-induced release of endogenous opioids causes disinhibition of brain stem noradrenergic neurons, which release norepinephrine into the spinal cord and inhibit pain signaling (Maze, M. and M. Fujinaga, 2000). Exactly how N2O causes the release of opioids is still uncertain.


The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociativeanaesthetic. Exposure to nitrous oxide causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity.[24]

A study of workers[25] and several experimental animal studies[26][27][28][29] indicate that adverse reproductive effects for pregnant females may also result from chronic exposure to nitrous oxide.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to nitrous oxide should be controlled during the administration of anesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operators.[30]


At room temperature (20 °C) the saturated vapor pressure is 58.5 bar, rising up to 72.45 bar at 36.4 °C — the critical temperature. The pressure curve is thus unusually sensitive to temperature.[31] Liquid nitrous oxide acts as a good solvent for manyorganic compounds; liquid mixtures may form shock sensitive explosives.[kilde mangler]

As with many strong oxidizers, contamination of parts with fuels have been implicated in rocketry accidents, where small quantities of nitrous / fuel mixtures explode due to 'water hammer' like effects (sometimes called 'dieseling' — heating due to adiabatic compression of gases can reach decomposition temperatures).[32] Some common building materials such as stainless steel and aluminium can act as fuels with strong oxidisers such as nitrous oxide, as can contaminants, which can ignite due to adiabatic compression.[33]

There have also been accidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in plumbing has led to the explosion of large tanks.[34]


Nitrous oxide inactivates the cobalamin form of vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub by oxidation. Symptoms of vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub deficiency, including sensory neuropathy, myelopathy, and encephalopathy, can occur within days or weeks of exposure to nitrous oxide anesthesia in people with subclinical vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub deficiency.[kilde mangler] Symptoms are treated with high doses of vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub, but recovery can be slow and incomplete.[35] People with normal vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub levels have stores to make the effects of nitrous oxide insignificant, unless exposure is repeated and prolonged (nitrous oxide abuse).[kilde mangler] Vitamin B12 levels should be checked in people with risk factors for vitamin BSkabelon:Ssub deficiency prior to using nitrous oxide anesthesia.

Nitrous oxide has also been shown to induce early stages of Olney's lesions in the brains of rats. However none of the lesions found were irreversible.[15]


Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas, accounting for around 6% of the heating effect of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.[36] According to 2006 data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, industrial sources make up only about 20% of all anthropogenic sources, and include the production of nylon, and the burning of fossil fuel in internal combustion engines. Human activity is thought to account for 30%; tropical soils and oceanic release account for 70%.[37] However, a 2008 study by Nobel Laureatte Paul Crutzen suggests that the amount of nitrous oxide release attributable to agricultural nitrate fertilizers has been seriously underestimated, most of which would presumably come under soil and oceanic release in the Environmental Protection Agency data.[38] Atmospheric levels have risen by more than 15% since 1750.[kilde mangler] Nitrous oxide also causes ozone depletion. A new study suggests that NSkabelon:SsubO emission currently is the single most important ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emission and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century.[39][40]


In the United States, possession of nitrous oxide is legal under federal law and is not subject to DEApurview.[41] It is, however, regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under the Food Drug and Cosmetics Act; prosecution is possible under its "misbranding" clauses, prohibiting the sale or distribution of nitrous oxide for the purpose of human consumption.

Many states have laws regulating the possession, sale, and distribution of nitrous oxide. Such laws usually ban distribution to minors or limit the amount of nitrous oxide that may be sold without special license.[kilde mangler]

In some countries, it is illegal to have nitrous oxide systems plumbed into an engine's intake manifold. These laws are ostensibly used to preventstreet racing and to meet emission standards. [kilde mangler]

Nitrous oxide is entirely legal to possess and inhale in the United Kingdom, although supplying it to others to inhale, especially minors, is more likely to end up with a prosecution under the Medicines Act.[kilde mangler]

In New Zealand, the Ministry of Health has warned that nitrous oxide is a prescription medicine, and its sale or possession without a prescription is an offense under the Medicines Act.[42] This statement would seemingly prohibit all non-medicinal uses of the chemical, though it is implied that only recreational use will be legally targeted.

In India, for general anaesthesia purposes, nitrous oxide is available as Nitrous Oxide IP. India's gas cylinder rules (1985) permit the transfer of gas from one cylinder to another for breathing purposes. This law benefits remote hospitals, which would otherwise suffer as a result of India's geographic immensity. Nitrous Oxide IP is transferred from bulk cylinders (17,000 liters capacity gas) to smaller pin-indexed valve cylinders (1,800 liters of gas), which are then connected to the yoke assembly of Boyle's machines. Because India's Food & Drug Authority (FDA-India) rules state that transferring a drug from one container to another (refilling) is equivalent to manufacturing, anyone found doing so must possess a drug manufacturing license.


The gas was first synthesized by English chemist and natural philosopher Joseph Priestley in 1775 [2], who called itphlogisticated nitrous air (see phlogiston). Priestley describes the preparation of "nitrous air diminished" by heating iron filings dampened with nitric acid in Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1775).

Humphry Davy in the 1790s tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, including the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They realized that nitrous oxide considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious. After it was publicized extensively byGardner Quincy Colton in the United States in the 1840s, it came into use as an anaesthetic, particularly by such dentists as Horace Wells, who was one of the first dentists to use it on his patients. This was because dentists did not typically have access to the services ofanesthesiologists and might benefit from patients who could respond to verbal commands.

See alsoRediger


  1. ^ 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by Working Group 1 (WG1), Chapter 2 "Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing" which contains information on global warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. Ukendt parameter |coauthors= ignoreret (|author= foreslået) (hjælp)
  4. ^ "George Poe is Dead". Washington Post. februar 3, 1914. Hentet 2007-12-29. Cousin of Famous Poet and Noted as a Scientist. Inventor of the Respirator. Also First to Liquefy Nitrous Oxide. Cadet at Virginia Military Institute at Time of Battle of Newmarket. Mentioned for the Nobel Prize for Scientific Attainment in Chemistry. Prof. George Poe, a cousin of the poet Edgar Allan Poe, a noted scientist and inventor, who had been mentioned for the Nobel prize for scientific attainment, a former resident of Washington, died in Norfolk, Virginia, yesterday of general paralysis. Prof. Poe was in his sixty-eighth year. Cite har en ukendt tom parameter: |coauthors= (hjælp)CS1-vedligeholdelse: Forældet parameter (link) CS1-vedligeholdelse: Dato automatisk oversat (link)
  5. ^ "Nitrous oxide plant". Sanghi Organization.
  6. ^ Synthesis of Nitrous Oxide by Oxidation of Ammonia T Suwa, A Matsushima, Y Suziki, Y Namina - Kohyo Kagaku Zasshi, 1961; Showa Denka Ltd.
  7. ^ Brozadzhiew & Rettos, 1975.
  8. ^ Reimer R. A.; Slaten C. S.; Seapan M.; Lower M. W.; Tomlinson P. E.; (1994). "Abatement of N2O emissions produced in the adipic acid industry". Environmental progress. 13 (2): 134-137. doi:10.1002/ep.670130217.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Ekstra punktum (link) CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  9. ^ .A. Shimizu, , K. Tanaka and M. Fujimori (2000). "Abatement of N2O emissions produced in the adipic acid industry". Chemosphere - Global Change Science. 2 (3-4): 425-434. doi:10.1016/S1465-9972(00)00024-6.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend Monopropellants, Patentdocs, hentet 2009-11-11
  11. ^ FireStar Engineering, LLC, FireStar Engineering, hentet 2009-12-11
  12. ^ AJ Giannini. Volatiles. In NS Miller (Ed.). A Comprehensive Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Addiction. NY, Marcel Dekker, 1991.
  13. ^ Whalley MG, Brooks GB. (2009). Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 203(4):745-52. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1424-0 PMID 19057896
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Beals J, Benshoff N, Olney J (2003). "Prolonged exposure to inhalational anesthetic nitrous oxide kills neurons in adult rat brain". Neuroscience. 122 (3): 609-16. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2003.07.012. PMID 14622904.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  16. ^ a b Mennerick, S., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Todorovic, S.M., Shen, W., Olney, J.W. & Zorumski, C.F. (1998). "Effect of nitrous oxide on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures". Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (23): 9716-26. PMID 9822732.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Gruss, M., Bushell, T.J., Bright, D.P., Lieb, W.R., Mathie, A. & Franks, N.P. (2004). "Two-pore-domain K+ channels are a novel target for the anesthetic gases xenon, nitrous oxide, and cyclopropane". Molecular Pharmacology. 65 (2): 443-52. doi:10.1124/mol.65.2.443. PMID 14742687.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Emmanouil, D.E., Johnson, C.H. & Quock, R.M. (1994). "Nitrous oxide anxiolytic effect in mice in the elevated plus maze: mediation by benzodiazepine receptors". Psychopharmacology. 115 (1-2): 167-72. doi:10.1007/BF02244768. PMID 7862891.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Zacny, J.P., Yajnik, S., Coalson, D., Lichtor, J.L., Apfelbaum, J.L., Rupani, G., Young, C., Thapar, P. & Klafta, J. (1995). "Flumazenil may attenuate some subjective effects of nitrous oxide in humans: a preliminary report". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 51 (4): 815-9. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(95)00039-Y. PMID 7675863.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Berkowitz, B.A., Finck, A.D., Hynes, M.D. & Ngai, S.H. (1979). "Tolerance to nitrous oxide analgesia in rats and mice". Anesthesiology. 51 (51): 309-12. doi:10.1097/00000542-197910000-00006.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  21. ^ a b Branda, E.M., Ramza, J.T., Cahill, F.J., Tseng, L.F. & Quock, R.M. (2000). "Role of brain dynorphin in nitrous oxide antinociception in mice". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 65: 217-21. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00202-6.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Guo, T.Z., Davies, M.F., Kingery, W.S., Patterson, A.J., Limbird, L.E. & Maze, M. (1999). "Nitrous oxide produces antinociceptive response via alpha2B and/or alpha2C adrenoceptor subtypes in mice". Anesthesiology. 90 (2): 470-6. doi:10.1097/00000542-199902000-00022. PMID 9952154.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Sawamura, S., Kingery, W.S., Davies, M.F., Agashe, G.S., Clark, J.D., Koblika, B.K., Hashimoto, T. & Maze, M. (2000). "Antinociceptive action of nitrous oxide is mediated by stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem and activation of [alpha]2B adrenoceptors". J. Neurosci. 20 (24): 9242-51. PMID 11125002.CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases and vapors. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 77B140.
  25. ^ Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ [1992]. Reduced fertility among women employed as dental assistants exposed to high levels of nitrous oxide. New Eng J Med 327(14):993B997.
  26. ^ Corbett TH, Cornell RG, Endres JL, Millard RI [1973]. Effects of low concentrations of nitrous oxide on rat pregnancy. Anesthesiology 39:299B301.
  27. ^ Vieira E [1979]. Effect of the chronic administration of nitrous oxide 0.5% to gravid rats. Br J Anaesth 51:283B287.
  28. ^ Vieira E, Cleaton-Jones JP, Austin JC, Moyes DG, Shaw R [1980]. Effects of low concentrations of nitrous oxide on rat fetuses. Anesth and Analgesia 59(3):175B177.
  29. ^ Vieira E, Cleaton-Jones P, Moyes D [1983]. Effects of low intermittent concentrations of nitrous oxide on the developing rat fetus. Br J Anaesth 55:67B69.
  30. ^ NIOSH Alert: Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide During Anesthetic Administration. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-100
  31. ^ Air Liquid data on Nitrous oxide
  32. ^ Vaseline triggered explosion of hybrid rocket
  33. ^ 20: Nitrous Oxide
  34. ^ Nitrous Oxide Trailer Rupture July 2, 2001 Report at CGA Seminar “Safety and Reliability of Industrial Gases, Equipment and Facilities”, October 15 -17, 2001, St. Louis, Missouri by Konrad Munke, LindeGas AG
  35. ^ AJ Giannini. Drug Abuse. Los Angeles, Health Information Press,1999.
  36. ^ Manure, HD TVs Among Greenhouse Gas Sources to Watch John Roach National Geographic News September 8, 2009
  37. ^ "Sources and Emissions -- Where Does Nitrous Oxide Come From?". U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Hentet 2008-02-02.
  38. ^ "N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels".
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^
  41. ^ Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics: State Laws Concerning Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide
  42. ^ - Time's up for sham sales of laughing gas

External linksRediger