Fuldkorn er hele kerner, der både indeholder frøhvide, kim og klid (skaldele). Mel malet af hele kerner kaldes ofte fuldkornsmel. I Danmark regnes kun hele kerner fra kornarter som hvede, spelt, rug, byg, havre, majs, hirse og ris som fuldkorn, mens solsikkekerner, græskarkerner, sesamfrø, vilde ris, boghvede og quinoa ikke regnes som fuldkorn, men kaldes pseudo-korn.[1] Andre steder medregnes pseudo-korn dog til fuldkorn.[2]

Wheat-kernel nutrition.svg

Som del af en generelt sund kost forbindes indtag af fuldkorn med en lavere risiko for flere sygdomme.[3] Fuldkorn er en kilde til kulhydrater, flere næringsstoffer og kostfibre.[4][5][6] Kornproteiner er af lav kvalitet på grund af mangel på essentielle aminosyrer, hovedsageligt lysin.[7][8] I modsætning hertil har proteinerne fra de såkaldte pseudo-kornprodukter, som vilde ris, boghvede og quinoa en høj næringsværdi.[9][10]

Hos en mindre del af befolkningen kan glutenproteiner i hvede og beslægtede kornsorter[11] udløse cøliaki, non-cøliakisk glutensensitivitet, glutenataksi og dermatitis herpetiformis (en hudsygdom).[12]

ReferencerRediger

  1. ^ Fødevarestyrelsen - Alt om kost. "Fuldkorn". altomkost.dk. Hentet 27. oktober 2020. 
  2. ^ "Whole Grains". American Association of Cereal Chemists. Hentet 3. juni 2017. 
  3. ^ "Whole Grains and Fiber". American Heart Association. 2016. Hentet 1. december 2016. Dietary fiber from whole grains, as part of an overall healthy diet, may help improve blood cholesterol levels, and lower risk of heart disease, stroke, obesity and type 2 diabetes. 
  4. ^ "Whole Grain Fact Sheet". European Food Information Council. 1. januar 2009. Hentet 6. december 2016. 
  5. ^ "Whole Grain Resource for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs: A Guide to Meeting the Whole Grain-Rich Criteria" (PDF). US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Januar 2014. Additionally, menu planners are encouraged to serve a variety of foods that meet whole grain-rich criteria and may not serve the same product every day to count for the HUSSC whole grain-rich criteria. 
  6. ^ "All About the Grains Group". US Department of Agriculture, MyPlate. 2016. Hentet 6. december 2016. 
  7. ^ Shewry, PR. "Impacts of agriculture on human health and nutrition – Vol. II - Improving the Protein Content and Quality of Temperate Cereals: Wheat, Barley and Rye" (PDF). UNESCO - Encyclopedia Life Support Systems (UNESCO-EOLSS). Hentet 2. juni 2017. When compared with the WHO requirements of essential amino acids for humans, wheat, barley and rye are seen to be deficient in lysine, with threonine being the second limiting amino acid (Table 1). 
  8. ^ "Nutritional quality of cereals". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Hentet 1. juni 2017. 
  9. ^ Robin F, Théoduloz C, Srichuwong S (2015). "Properties of extruded whole grain cereals and pseudocereals flours". International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 50 (10): 2152-2159. doi:10.1111/ijfs.12893. Hentet 3. juni 2017. 
  10. ^ Saturni L, Ferretti G, Bacchetti T (2010). "The gluten-free diet: safety and nutritional quality". Nutrients (Review). 2 (1): 16-34. PMC 3257612 . PMID 22253989. doi:10.3390/nu2010016. 
  11. ^ Biesiekierski JR (2017). "What is gluten?". J Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review). 32 Suppl 1: 78-81. PMID 28244676. doi:10.1111/jgh.13703. Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as “gluten.” The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease.  
  12. ^ Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (januar 2013). "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43-52. PMC 3440559 . PMID 22345659. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346.