Karma

centralt begreb i det østlige religion og filosofi

Karma (sanskrit: कर्म; Pali: kamma) betyder "handling", "arbejde" eller "gerning"; det henviser også til det åndelige princip om årsag og virkning, da en persons intention og handlinger (årsag) påvirker individets fremtid (effekt). [1] God hensigt og gode gerninger bidrager til god karma og bedre genfødsler, mens dårlige intentioner og dårlige gerninger bidrager til dårlig karma og dårlige genfødsler. [2] [3]

Teorien om karma er tæt forbundet med ideen om genfødsel i mange indiske religioner (især hinduisme, buddhisme, jainisme og sikhisme [4] samt taoisme). [5] Ifølge disse religioner påvirker karma i nutiden ens fremtid i det aktuelle liv såvel som arten og kvaliteten af fremtidens liv - ens vej gennem saṃsāra. [6] [7]

I hinduismenRediger

Inden for hinduismen hænger karma-begrebet sammen med kaste-systemet. Man tror her, at man fødes ind i forskellige samfundslag alt afhængigt af den måde, man har levet i tidligere liv.

Hvis man har flere gode gerninger end dårlige gerninger, bliver man genfødt på et lidt højere stadie. Det er nemmere at nå til erkendelse, hvis man er på et højere stadie.

I buddhismenRediger

Karma og karmaphala er grundlæggende begreber i buddhismen. [8] [9] Begreberne karma og karmaphala forklarer, hvordan vores forsætlige handlinger holder os bundet til genfødsel i samsara, hvorimod den buddhistiske sti, som beskrevet ved Den Ædle Ottefoldige Vej, viser os vejen ud af samsara. [10] [11]

Karmaphala er "frugt", [12] [13] [14] "effekt" [15] eller "resultat" [16] af karma. Et lignende udtryk er karmavipaka, "modning" af karma. [13] [17] Genfødselscyklussen bestemmes af karma, [18] det vil sige ved "handlinger". [24]

I den buddhistiske lære henviser ordet karma til handlinger, der er drevet af intention (cetanā). [25] [26] [14] [29] En handling, der er gjort bevidst (med forsæt) gennem krop, tale eller sind, fører til fremtidige konsekvenser. [30] Se Nibbedhika Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya 6.63:

"Intention (cetana), siger jeg jer, er kamma. Ved forsæt skaber en person kamma med kroppen, med talen og med sindet. "

Hvordan disse forsætlige handlinger fører til genfødsel, og hvordan ideen om genfødsel skal forenes med doktrinerne om anicca og ikke-selv, [31] [32] er et spørgsmål om filosofisk undersøgelse i de buddhistiske traditioner, for hvilke flere løsninger er blevet foreslået. [18]

I den tidlige buddhisme er der ikke udarbejdet nogen eksplicit teori om genfødsel og karma, [21] og "karma-doktrinen kan have været tilfældig i den tidlige buddhistiske soteriologi." [22] [23]

I den tidlige buddhisme tilskrives genfødsel begær eller uvidenhed. [19] [20]

Buddhas lære om karma er ikke strengt deterministisk, men inkorporerer omstændighedsfaktorer. [33] [34] [35]

Det er ikke en stiv og mekanisk proces, men en fleksibel, flydende og dynamisk proces. [36] Der er ikke noget fast lineært forhold mellem en bestemt handling og dens resultater. [34] Den karmiske virkning af en handling bestemmes ikke kun af selve handlingen, men også af arten af den person, der begår handlingen, og af de omstændigheder, hvori det begås. [37] [34]

Karmaphala er ikke en "dom" håndhævet af en gud, guddommelighed eller andet overnaturligt væsen, der kontrollerer kosmos' anliggender. Snarere er karmaphala resultatet af en naturlig proces med årsag og virkning. [39] Inden for buddhismen ligger den egentlige betydning af doktrinen om karma og dens frugter i erkendelsen af, hvor presserende det er at stoppe hele processen. [40] [41] Acintita Sutta advarer om, at "resultaterne af kamma" er et af de fire uforståelige emner, [42] [43] emner, der er uden for al konceptualisering [42] og ikke kan forstås med logisk tanke eller fornuft. [48]

Nichiren-buddhismen siger, at transformation og forandring gennem tro og praksis ændrer dårlig karma - negative årsager, der tidligere er skabt, der resulterer i negative resultater i nutiden og fremtiden - til positive årsager og dermed fordele i fremtiden. [49]

ReferencerRediger

  1. ^ Karma Encyclopædia Britannica (2012)
  2. ^ Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken, Diederichs, München, Germany
  3. ^ Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker, Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-415-93672-1, Hindu Ethics, pp 678
  4. ^ Parvesh Singla. The Manual of Life – Karma. Parvesh singla. s. 5-7. GGKEY:0XFSARN29ZZ. Hentet 4 June 2011. 
  5. ^ Eva Wong, Taoism, Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978-1590308820, pp. 193
  6. ^ "Karma" in: John Bowker (1997), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 351–352
  8. ^ Kragh 2006, s. 11.
  9. ^ Lamotte 1987, s. 15.
  10. ^ P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. s. 147–151. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4. 
  11. ^ Charles Eliot (2014). Japanese Buddhism. Routledge. s. 39-41. ISBN 978-1-317-79274-1. 
  12. ^ Kalupahana 1992, s. 166.
  13. ^ a b c Keown 2000, s. 36-37.
  14. ^ a b Gombrich 2009, s. 19.
  15. ^ Kopf 2001, s. 141.
  16. ^ Kragh 2001, s. 11.
  17. ^ Keown: "The remote effects of karmic choices are referred to as the 'maturation' (vipāka) or 'fruit' (phala) of the karmic act."[13]
  18. ^ a b Buswell 2004, s. 712.
  19. ^ a b Vetter 1988, s. xxi.
  20. ^ a b Buswell 2004, s. 416.
  21. ^ a b Matthews 1986, s. 124.
  22. ^ a b Schmithausen 1986, s. 206-207.
  23. ^ a b Bronkhorst 1998, s. 13.
  24. ^ In early Buddhism rebirth is ascribed to craving or ignorance,[19][20] and the theory of karma may have been of minor importance in early Buddhist soteriology.[21][22][23]
  25. ^ Bronkhorst 1998.
  26. ^ Gethin 1998, s. 119-120.
  27. ^ Gethin 1998, s. 119.
  28. ^ Gethin 1998, s. 120.
  29. ^ Rupert Gethin: "[Karma is] a being's intentional 'actions' of body, speech, and mind—whatever is done, said, or even just thought with definite intention or volition";[27] "[a]t root karma or 'action' is considered a mental act or intention; it is an aspect of our mental life: 'It is "intention" that I call karma; having formed the intention, one performs acts (karma) by body, speech and mind.'"[28]
  30. ^ Gombrich 1997, s. 55.
  31. ^ a b Dargyay 1986, s. 170.
  32. ^ Dargray: "When [the Buddhist] understanding of karma is correlated to the Buddhist doctrine of universal impermanence and No-Self, a serious problem arises as to where this trace is stored and what the trace left is. The problem is aggravated when the trace remains latent over a long period, perhaps over a period of many existences. The crucial problem presented to all schools of Buddhist philosophy was where the trace is stored and how it can remain in the ever-changing stream of phenomena which build up the individual and what the nature of this trace is."[31]
  33. ^ Kalupahana 1975, s. 127.
  34. ^ a b c d Bhikkhu Thanissaro 2010, s. 47–48.
  35. ^ Bhikkhu Thanissaro: "Unlike the theory of linear causality — which led the Vedists and Jains to see the relationship between an act and its result as predictable and tit-for-tat — the principle of this/that conditionality makes that relationship inherently complex. The results of kamma ("kamma" is the Pali spelling for the word "karma") experienced at any one point in time come not only from past kamma, but also from present kamma. This means that, although there are general patterns relating habitual acts to corresponding results [MN 135], there is no set one-for-one, tit-for-tat, relationship between a particular action and its results. Instead, the results are determined by the context of the act, both in terms of actions that preceded or followed it [MN 136] and in terms one's state of mind at the time of acting or experiencing the result [AN 3:99]. [...] The feedback loops inherent in this/that conditionality mean that the working out of any particular cause-effect relationship can be very complex indeed. This explains why the Buddha says in AN 4:77 that the results of kamma are imponderable. Only a person who has developed the mental range of a Buddha—another imponderable itself—would be able to trace the intricacies of the kammic network. The basic premise of kamma is simple—that skillful intentions lead to favorable results, and unskillful ones to unfavorable results—but the process by which those results work themselves out is so intricate that it cannot be fully mapped. We can compare this with the Mandelbrot set, a mathematical set generated by a simple equation, but whose graph is so complex that it will probably never be completely explored."[34]
  36. ^ Harvey 1990, s. 42.
  37. ^ Kalupahana 1975, s. 131.
  38. ^ Khandro Rinpoche 2003, s. 95.
  39. ^ Khandro Rinpoche: "Buddhism is a nontheistic philosophy. We do not believe in a creator but in the causes and conditions that create certain circumstances that then come to fruition. This is called karma. It has nothing to do with judgement; there is no one keeping track of our karma and sending us up above or down below. Karma is simply the wholeness of a cause, or first action, and its effect, or fruition, which then becomes another cause. In fact, one karmic cause can have many fruitions, all of which can cause thousands more creations. Just as a handful of seed can ripen into a full field of grain, a small amount of karma can generate limitless effects."[38]
  40. ^ Gombrich 2009, s. 21-22.
  41. ^ Vetter 1988, s. 79-80.
  42. ^ a b Buswell & Lopez Jr. 2013, s. 14.
  43. ^ accesstoinsight, Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable, Anguttara Nikaya 4.77
  44. ^ Dasgupta 1991, s. 16.
  45. ^ a b Buswell & Lopez Jr. 2013, s. 852.
  46. ^ :to insight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.072.than.html accesstoinsight, Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  47. ^ accesstoinsight, Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  48. ^ Dasgupta explains that in Indian philosophy, acintya is "that which is to be unavoidably accepted for explaining facts, but which cannot stand the scrutiny of logic."[44] See also the Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta "Discourse to Vatsagotra on the [Simile of] Fire," Majjhima Nikaya 72,[45][46] in which the Buddha is questioned by Vatsagotra on the "ten indeterminate question,"[45] and the Buddha explains that a Tathagata is like a fire that has been extinguished, and is "deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea".[47]
  49. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane and Merv (2009). Chanting in the Hillsides. s. 78. 

KilderRediger

  • Bhikkhu Thanissaro (2010), Wings to Awakening: Part I (PDF), Metta Forest Monastery, Valley Center, CA. 
  • Bronkhorst, Johannes (1998), "Did the Buddha Believe in Karma and Rebirth?", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 21 (1): 1-20. 
  • Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2004), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Macmillan Reference USA. 
  • Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez Jr., Donald S., (red.) (2013), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University Press. 
  • Chapple, Christopher (1986), Karma and Creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-250-4. 
  • Dargyay, Lobsang (1986), "Tsong-Kha-Pa's Concept of Karma", i Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-990-6. 
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath (1991), A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 4, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. 
  • Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press. 
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism Began. The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.. 
  • Gombrich, Richard (2009), What the Buddha Thought, Equinox. 
  • Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kalupahana, David (1975), Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism, University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Kalupahana, David J. (1992), The Principles of Buddhist Psychology, Delhi: ri Satguru Publications. 
  • Keown, Damien (2000), Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Kindle Edition. 
  • Mark Juergensmeyer; Wade Clark Roof (2011). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5. 
  • Khandro Rinpoche (2003), This Precious Life, Shambhala. 
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1986), "Contemporary Conceptions of Karma and Rebirth Among North Indian Vaisnavas", i Neufeldt, Ronald W., Karma and Rebirth: Post-classical Developments, Sri Satguru Publications. 
  • Kopf, Gereon (2001), Beyond Personal Identity: Dōgen, Nishida, and a Phenomenology of No-self, Psychology Press. 
  • Kragh, Ulrich Timme (2006), Early Buddhist Theories of Action and Result: A Study of Karmaphalasambandha, Candrakirti's Prasannapada, verses 17.1–20, Arbeitskreis für tibetische und buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien, ISBN 3-902501-03-0. 
  • Lamotte, Etienne (1987), Karmasiddhi Prakarana: The Treatise on Action by Vasubandhu, Asian Humanities Press. 
  • Lichter, David; Epstein, Lawrence (1983), "Irony in Tibetan Notions of the Good Life", i Keyes, Charles F.; Daniel, E. Valentien, Karma: An Anthropological Inquiry, University of California Press. 
  • Matthews, Bruce (1986), "Chapter Seven: Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravada Buddhism", i Neufeldt, Ronald W., Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-990-6. 
  • Obeyesekere, Gananath (2005). Wendy Doniger, (red.). Karma and Rebirth: A Cross Cultural Study. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120826090. 
  • Padmakara Translation group (1994), "Translators' Introduction", The Words of My Perfect teacher, HarperCollins Publishers India. 
  • Schmithausen, Lambert (1986), Critical Response. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY. 
  • Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL.