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RD-170

Medlem siden 6. april 2019

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RD-170
RD-170 rocket engine.jpg
RD-170 rocket engine model on exhibition in Saint Petersburg's Museum of Space and Missile Technology.
Country of origin Soviet Union/Russian Federation
First flight 1985-04-13
Manufacturer NPO Energomash
Application Main Engine
Associated L/V Energia
Successor RD-171M
Status Active
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / RG-1
Mixture ratio 2.63
Cycle Oxidizer-rich staged combustion
Configuration
Chamber 4
Nozzle ratio 36.87
Performance
Thrust (vac.) 7,904 kN (1.777 lbf)
Thrust (SL) 7,257 kN (1.631 lbf)
Throttle range 100–40%
Thrust-to-weight ratio 75
Chamber pressure 24,52 MPa (3.556 psi)*
Isp (vac.) 337 s (3,30 km/s)
Isp (SL) 309 s (3,03 km/s)
Burn time 150 seconds
Dimensions
Length 4,0 m (160 in)*
Diameter 3,8 m (150 in)*
Dry weight 9.750 kg (21.500 lb)
Used in
Energia
References
References [1][2][3][4]

RD-170 (РД-170, Ракетный Двигатель-170, Rocket Engine-170) er verdens mest kraftfulde multi-forbrændingskammerede flydende brændstofraketmotor, designet og produceret i Sovjetunionen af NPO Energomash til brug sammen med Energia-lanceringen køretøj. Motoren forbrænder den russiske ækvivalent af RP-1 brændstof og LOX oxidator i fire forbrændingskamre, som alle leveres af en enkeltaksel, turbopumpen med en turbine på 230 MW (230.000 hk) i en trinvis forbrændingscyklus. [1] [2 ] Til sammenligning blev Rocketdyne F-1-motoren (hvoraf fem blev brugt på hver Saturn V) verdens mest kraftfulde enkeltbrændingskammer-raketmotor.

Shared turbopumpRediger

Flere sovjetiske og russiske raketmotorer bruger tilgangen til at klynge små forbrændingskamre rundt om en enkelt turbine og pumpe. I begyndelsen af 1950'erne konfronterede mange sovjetiske motordesignere, herunder Valentin P. Glushko, problemer med forbrændingsstabilitet, mens de designede større trykkamre. På det tidspunkt løste de problemet ved at bruge en klynge af mindre stødkamre.

VariantsRediger

RD-170Rediger

The RD-170 engine featured four combustion chambers and was developed for use on the Energia launch vehicle – both the engine and the launch vehicle were in production only for a short time.

RD-171Rediger

 
RD-171 model

Building on the technology from the Energia launch vehicle the Zenit (rocket family) was developed, which uses a RD-170 variant, the RD-171. While the RD-170 had nozzles which swiveled on both axes, the RD-171 swivels on just one axis.[2] RD-171 was intended to be used on Zenit rocket, and one-axis swiveling allowed to avoid additional aerodynamic forces. Models called the RD-172[kilde mangler] and RD-173 were proposed upgrades that would provide additional thrust, and the RD-173 proposal was finalized as the RD-171M upgrade in 2006.[2]

RD-171MVRediger

A modification of RD-171M being developed for Irtysh rocket. Unlike RD-171M it's completely made with domestic components and features a new control system.[5] First test sample was manufactured in early 2019[6]

Dual-chamber derivativeRediger

  Hovedartikel: RD-180.

The RD-180 uses only two combustion chambers instead of the four of the RD-170. The RD-180 used on the Atlas V replaced the three engines used on early Atlas rockets with a single engine and achieved significant payload and performance gains. This engine had also been chosen to be the main propulsion system for the first stage of the now cancelled Russian Rus-M rocket.[7]

Single-chamber derivativeRediger

  Hovedartikel: RD-191.

The RD-191 is a single-chamber version used in the Russian Angara rocket.[8] Variants of RD-191 include RD-151 in South Korean Naro-1 rocket,[9] RD-181 in American Orbital ATK Antares rocket, and the proposed RD-193 for the Soyuz-2-1v project.[10]

Proposed variantsRediger

On 28 July 2011, NPO Energomash summarised the results of the work on Rus-M rocket engine and considered the possibility of construction several new variants of RD-170 family engines.[11] According to the information, new and proposed variants will be marked as:

  • RD-180M for manned Atlas V rocket (Not required, current RD-180 meets manned Atlas V requirements.)[12]
  • RD-180V for Rus-M rocket.
  • RD-175 with 9800 kN thrust for proposed Energia-K rocket.[13]

In 2017, Director General of RKK Energia Vladimir Solntsev referred to a "simplified" and "cheaper" version of the RD-171 engine in connection with the Soyuz-5 (Sunkar) project.[14]

SpecificationsRediger

  • 4 combustion chambers, 4 nozzles
  • 1 set of turbines and pumps; turbine produces approximately 257,000 hp (192 MW); equivalent to the power output of 3 nuclear-powered icebreakers
  • Ignition: Pyrophoric start-up fuel capsule (triethylaluminium)[15]
  • Vacuum thrust: 7.887 kN (1.773.000 lbf)
  • Vacuum Isp: 338 s (3,31 km/s)
  • Sea-level Isp: 309 s (3,03 km/s)
  • Weight: 9,750 kilogram (21,50 lb)
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 82

See alsoRediger

ReferencesRediger

  1. ^ "RD-171M". NPO Energomash. Hentet 2018-02-22. 
  2. ^ a b c Ponomarenko, Alexander. "ЖРД РД-170 (11Д521) и РД-171 (11Д520)" [RD-170 (11D521) and RD-171 (11D520)] (Russian). Hentet 2015-10-08. 
  3. ^ Wade, Mark. "RD-170". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Hentet 2015-10-08. 
  4. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dick (2015-09-15). "Zenit family". Gunter's Space Page. Hentet 2015-10-08. 
  5. ^ "В НПО ЭНЕРГОМАШ СОЗДАН ЭТАЛОННЫЙ МАКЕТ ДВИГАТЕЛЯ РД-171 МВ" [Energomash has made a reference model of RD-171MV]. NPO Energomash (russisk). 16 October 2018. Hentet 17 March 2019. 
  6. ^ Rogozin (8 February 2019). "Первый двигатель РД-171МВ для новейшей ракеты среднего класса Союз-5 "Иртыш" собран на подмосковном "НПО Энергомаш" и готовится к огневым испытаниям." (Tweet) (russisk). 
  7. ^ Coppinger, Rob (2009-08-11). "The Bear's stars shine brighter". Flight International. Hentet 2009-08-22. 
  8. ^ "Successful Tests of Angara Stage 1 Engine". Khrunichev. 2007-12-12. Arkiveret fra originalen 2007-12-30. 
  9. ^ "First launch of KSLV-1 is conducted". 2009-08-25. 
  10. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "RD-193". russianspaceweb.com. Hentet 2015-06-04. 
  11. ^ "Проведено заседание НТС" (russisk). August 1, 2011. Arkiveret fra originalen September 30, 2011. Hentet August 26, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Energomash 2011 catalog (Russian)". Roscosmos. Hentet February 15, 2018. 
  13. ^ "Russia's Energomash: new rocket engines in development". VoiceofRussia.com. The Voice of Russia. 2012-02-22. Hentet 2014-11-12. 
  14. ^ "Russia charts new path to super rocket". russianspaceweb.com. Hentet February 15, 2018. 
  15. ^ http://lpre.de/energomash/RD-170/#flow_schematic_descr
Fodnotefejl: <ref>-tag med navn "yna-20090825" defineret inden i <references> anvendes ikke i den ovenstående tekst.

External linksRediger