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Nikolay Bogolyubov was born on 21 August 1909 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire. Bogolyubov was born 8 (21) in August 1909 in Nizhny Novgorod. His father, Nikolai Bogolyubov, was a spiritual writer, professor of theology; have Bogolyubov (Laminarska) Olga, & nbsp; - a teacher of music.

Six months after the birth of Nicholas family moved to Nizhin (now in Chernigiv Oblast, Ukraine) a, where his father taught until 1913.

1913-1918 & nbsp; - family residence in Kiev. Initial knowledge received at home. The father said the first information on arithmetic, Russian, German and French. In six years, attending preparatory class of the Kiev school. In high school he studied briefly & nbsp; - during the Civil War, the family moved to the village. Great Cliff in Poltava.

The Bogolyubovs relocated to the village of Velikaya Krucha in the Poltava Governorate (now in Poltava Oblast, Ukraine) in 1919, where the young Nikolay Bogolyubov began to study physics and mathematics.

From & nbsp; 1919 to 1921 he studied at the school Velykokruchansk Seven-year school; - one school, which he graduated. Fodnotefejl: Afsluttende </ref> mangler for <ref>-tag.

After the seven-year school Bogolyubov independently studied physics and mathematics and 14 years have participated in the seminar of mathematical physics Kiev University under the direction of academician Dr. A. & nbsp; Grave. In 1924, at the age of fifteen Bogolyubov wrote the first scientific work, and the following year was admitted directly to graduate school USSR Academy of Sciences to academician M. M. & nbsp; Krylov, from which he graduated in 1929, received 20 years his doctorate in mathematics.

He attended research seminars in Kiev University and soon started to work under the supervision of the well-known contemporary mathematician Nikolay Krylov. In 1924, at the age of 15, Nikolay Bogolyubov wrote his first published scientific paper On the behavior of solutions of linear differential equations at infinity. In 1925 he entered Ph.D. program at the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and obtained the degree of Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences, equivalent to a Ph.D.) in 1928, at the age of 19, with the doctoral thesis titled On direct methods of variational calculus. In 1930, at the age of 21, he obtained the degree of Doktor nauk (Doctor of Sciences, equivalent to Habilitation), the highest degree in the Soviet Union, which requires the recipient to have made a significant independent contribution to his or her scientific field.

This early period of Bogolyubov's work in science was concerned with such mathematical problems as direct methods of the calculus of variations, the theory of almost periodic functions, methods of approximate solution of differential equations, and dynamical systems. This earlier research had already earned him recognition. One of his essays was awarded the Bologna Academy of Sciences Prize in 1930, and the author was awarded the erudite degree of doctor of mathematics. This was the period when the scientific career of the young Nikolai Bogolyubov began, later producing new scientific trends in modern mathematics, physics, and mechanics.

Since 1931, Krylov and Bogolyubov worked together on the problems of nonlinear mechanics and nonlinear oscillations. They were the key figures in the "Kiev school of nonlinear oscillation research", where their cooperation resulted in the paper "On the quasiperiodic solutions of the equations of nonlinear mechanics" (1934) and the book Introduction to Nonlinear Mechanics (1937; translated to English in 1947) leading to a creation of a large field of non-linear mechanics.

And this can explain, as the authors believe, the need to shape the collection of problems of non-linear perturbation theory into a special science, which could be named NON-LINEAR MECHANICS.

N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogolyubov, New methods in non-linear mechanics, ONTI GTTI, Moscow-Leningrad, 1934

Distinctive features of the Kiev School approach included an emphasis on the computation of solutions (not just a proof of its existence), approximations of periodic solutions, use of the invariant manifolds in the phase space, and applications of a single unified approach to many different problems. From a control engineering point of view, the key achievement of the Kiev School was the development by Krylov and Bogolyubov of the describing function method for the analysis of nonlinear control problems.

In the period 1928—1973, Nikolay Bogolyubov worked in the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR holding the position of the Director of the institute since 1965. He lectured at Kiev University in the period 1936—1959.

After the German attack against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 (beginning of the Great Patriotic War), most institutes and universities from west part of Russia were evacuated into east regions far from the battle lines. Nikolay Bogolyubov moved to Ufa, where he became Head of the Departments of Mathematical Analysis at Ufa State Aviation Technical University and at Ufa Pedagogical Institute, remaining on these positions during the period of July 1941 – August 1943.

In autumn 1943, Bogolyubov came from evacuation to Moscow and on 1 November 1943 he accepted a position in the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Moscow State University (MSU). At that time the Head of the Department was Anatoly Vlasov (for a short period in 1944 the Head of the Department was Vladimir Fock). Theoretical physicists working in the department in that period included Dmitry Ivanenko, Arsenij Sokolov, and other physicists.

In the period 1943–1946, Bogolyubov's resesarch was essentially concerned with the theory of stochastic processes and asymptotic methods. In his work [kilde mangler] a simple example of an anharmonic oscillator evolving under the force of the form as a superposition of incoherent sinusoidal oscillations with continuous spectrum was used to show that depending on a specific approximation time scale the evolution of the system can be either deterministic, or a stochastic process satisfying Fokker-Planck equation, or even a process which is neither deterministic nor stochastic. In other words, he showed that depending on the choice of the time scale for the corresponding approximations the same stochastic process can be regarded as both dynamical and Markovian, and in the general case as a non-Markov process. This work was the first to introduce the notion of time hierarchy in non-equilibrium statistical physics which then became the key concept in all further development of the statistical theory of irreversible processes.

In 1945, Bogolyubov proved a fundamental theorem on the existence and basic properties of a one-parameter integral manifold for a system of non-linear differential equations. He investigated periodic and quasi-periodic solutions lying on a one-dimensional manifold, thus forming the foundation for a new method of non-linear mechanics, the method of integral manifolds.

In 1946, he published in JETP two works on equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics which became the essence of his fundamental monograph Problems of dynamical theory in statistical physics (Moscow, 1946).

On 26 January 1953, Nikolay Bogolyubov became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at MSU, after Anatoly Vlasov decided to leave the position on January 2, 1953.


In 1947, Nikolay Bogolyubov organized and became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Steklov Mathematical Institute. In 1969, the Department of Theoretical Physics was separated into the Departments of Mathematical Physics (Head Vasily Vladimirov), of Statistical Mechanics, and of Quantum Field Theory (Head Mikhail Polivanov). While working in the Steklov Institute, Nikolay Bogolyubov and his school contributed to science with many important works including works on renormalization theory, renormalization group, axiomatic S-matrix theory, and works on the theory of dispersion relations.

In the late 1940s and 1950s, Bogoliubov worked on the theory of superfluidity and superconductivity, where he developed the method of BBGKY hierarchy for a derivation of kinetic equations, formulated microscopic theory of superfluidity, and made other essential contributions. Later he worked on quantum field theory, where introduced the Bogoliubov transformation, formulated and proved the Bogoliubov's edge-of-the-wedge theorem and Bogoliubov-Parasyuk theorem (with Ostap Parasyuk), and obtained other significant results. In the 1960s his attention turned to the quark model of hadrons; in 1965 he was among the first scientists to study the new quantum number color charge.

In 1946, Nikolay Bogoliubow was elected as a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He was elected a full member (academician) of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and in full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1953.


Institutions, awards and locations have been named in Bogolyubov's memory:

  • Commemorative plaque at the entrance of the Physics Department of Moscow State University

In 2009, the centenary of Nikolay Bogolyubov's birth was celebrated with two conferences in Russia and Ukraine:


Fundamental works of Nikolay Bogoliubov were devoted to asymptotic methods of nonlinear mechanics, quantum field theory, statistical field theory, variational calculus, approximation methods in mathematical analysis, equations of mathematical physics, theory of stability, theory of dynamical systems, and to many other areas.

He built a new theory of scattering matrices, formulated the concept of microscopical causality, obtained important results in quantum electrodynamics, and investigated on the basis of the edge-of-the-wedge theorem the dispersion relations in elementary particle physics. He suggested a new synthesis of the Bohr theory of quasiperiodic functions and developed methods for asymptotic integration of nonlinear differential equations which describe oscillating processes.

Mathematics and non-linear mechanicsRediger

  • In 1932—1943, in the early stage of his career, he worked in collaboration with Nikolay Krylov on mathematical problems of nonlinear mechanics and developed mathematical methods for asymptotic integration of non-linear differential equations. He also applied these methods to problems of statistical mechanics.
  • In 1937, jointly with Nikolay Krylov he proved the Krylov-Bogoliubov theorems.[1]
  • In 1956, at the International Conference on Theoretical Physics in Seattle, USA (September, 1956), he presented the formulation and the first proof of the edge-of-the-wedge theorem. This theorem in the theory of functions of several complex variables has important implications to the dispersion relations in elementary particle physics.

Statistical mechanicsRediger

  • 1939 Jointly with Nikolay Krylov gave the first consistent microscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation in the single scheme of classical and quantum mechanics.[2]
  • 1945 Suggested the idea of hierarchy of relaxation times, which is significant for statistical theory of irreversible processes.
  • 1946 Developed a general method for a microscopic derivation of kinetic equations for classical systems.[3][4] The method was based on the hierarchy of equations for multi-particle distribution functions known now as Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy.
  • 1947 Jointly with K. P. Gurov extended this method to the derivation of kinetic equations for quantum systems on the basis of the quantum BBGKY hierarchy.[5]
  • 1947—1948 Introduced kinetic equations in the theory of superfluidity,[6][7] computed the excitation spectrum for a weakly imperfect Bose gas, showed that this spectrum has the same properties as spectrum of Helium II, and used this analogy for a theoretical description of superfluidity of Helium II.
  • 1958 Formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity[8] and established an analogy between superconductivity and superfluidity phenomena; this contribution was discussed in details in the book A New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity (co-authors V. V. Tolmachev and D. V. Shirkov, Moscow, Academy of Sciences Press, 1958).

Quantum theoryRediger



Mathematics and Non-linear Mechanics:

  1. N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov (1934): On various formal expansions of non-linear mechanics. Kiev, Izdat. Zagal'noukr. Akad. Nauk. (ukrainsk)
  2. N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov (1947): Introduction to Nonlinear Mechanics. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  3. N. N. Bogoliubov, Y. A. Mitropolsky (1961): Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Non-Linear Oscillations. New York, Gordon and Breach.

Statistical Mechanics:

  1. N. N. Bogoliubov (1945): On Some Statistical Methods in Mathematical Physics. Kyiv (russisk).
  2. N. N. Bogoliubov, V. V. Tolmachev, D. V. Shirkov (1959): A New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity. New York, Consultants Bureau.
  3. N. N. Bogoliubov (1960): Problems of Dynamic Theory in Statistical Physics. Oak Ridge, Tenn., Technical Information Service.
  4. N. N. Bogoliubov (1967—1970): Lectures on Quantum Statistics. Problems of Statistical Mechanics of Quantum Systems. New York, Gordon and Breach.
  5. N. N. Bogolubov and N. N. Bogolubov, Jnr. (1992): Introduction to Quantum Statistical Mechanics. Gordon and Breach. ISBN 2-88124-879-9.

Quantum Field Theory:

  1. N. N. Bogoliubov, B. V. Medvedev, M. K. Polivanov (1958): Problems in the Theory of Dispersion Relations. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.
  2. N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1959): The Theory of Quantized Fields. New York, Interscience. The first text-book on the renormalization group theory.
  3. N. N. Bogoliubov, A. A. Logunov and I. T. Todorov (1975): Introduction to Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory.[11] Reading, Mass.: W. A. Benjamin, Advanced Book Program. ISBN 978-0-8053-0982-9. ISBN 0-8053-0982-9.
  4. N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1980): Introduction to the Theory of Quantized Field. John Wiley & Sons Inc; 3rd edition. ISBN 0-471-04223-4. ISBN 978-0-471-04223-5.
  5. N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1982): Quantum Fields. Benjamin-Cummings Pub. Co., ISBN 0-8053-0983-7.
  6. N. N. Bogoliubov, A. A. Logunov, A. I. Oksak, I. T. Todorov (1990): General Principles of Quantum Field Theory. Dordrecht [Holland]; Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-0540-X. ISBN 978-0-7923-0540-8.
Selected works
  1. N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part I. Dynamical Theory. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1990. ISBN 2-88124-752-0, ISBN 978-2-88124-752-1.
  2. N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part II. Quantum and Classical Statistical Mechanics. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1991. ISBN 2-88124-768-7.
  3. N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part III. Nonlinear Mechanics and Pure Mathematics. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995. ISBN 2-88124-918-3.
  4. N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part IV. Quantum Field Theory. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995. ISBN 2-88124-926-4, ISBN 978-2-88124-926-6.

Selected papersRediger

  • Bogoliubov, N. N. (1948). "Equations of Hydrodynamics in Statistical Mechanics" (in Ukrainian)". Sbornik Trudov Instituta Matematiki AN USSR. 10: 41–59. 
  • "On Question about Superfluidity Condition in the Nuclear Matter Theory" (in Russian), Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 119, 52, 1958.
  • "On One Variational Principle in Many Body Problem" (in Russian), Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 119, N2, 244, 1959.
  • "On Compensation Principle in the Method of Selfconformed Field" (in Russian), Uspekhi Fizicheskhih Nauk, 67, N4, 549, 1959.
  • "The Quasi-averages in Problems of Statistical Mechanics" (in Russian), Preprint D-781, JINR, Dubna, 1961.
  • "On the Hydrodynamics of a Superfluiding" (in Russian), Preprint P-1395, JINR, Dubna, 1963.

See alsoRediger


  1. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov and N. M. Krylov (1937). "La theorie generalie de la mesure dans son application a l'etude de systemes dynamiques de la mecanique non-lineaire". Annals of Mathematics. Second Series (French). 38 (1): 65–113. JSTOR 1968511. doi:10.2307/1968511.  Zbl. 16.86.
  2. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov and N. M. Krylov (1939). Fokker-Planck equations generated in perturbation theory by a method based on the spectral properties of a perturbed Hamiltonian. Zapiski Kafedry Fiziki Akademii Nauk Ukrainian SSR 4: 81–157 (in Ukrainian).
  3. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1946). "Kinetic Equations". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (Russian). 16 (8): 691–702. 
  4. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1946). "Kinetic Equations". Journal of Physics. 10 (3): 265–274. 
  5. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, K. P. Gurov (1947). "Kinetic Equations in Quantum Mechanics". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (Russian). 17 (7): 614–628. 
  6. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1947). "On the Theory of Superfluidity". Izv. Academii Nauk USSR (Russian). 11 (1): 77. 
  7. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1947). "On the Theory of Superfluidity". Journal of Physics. 11 (1): 23–32. 
  8. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1958). "On a New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. 34 (1): 58. 
  9. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, O. S. Parasyuk (1955). "[A theory of multiplication of causal singular functions]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (Russian). 100: 25–28. 
  10. ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, O. S. Parasyuk (1957). "Uber die Multiplikation der Kausalfunktionen in der Quantentheorie der Felder". Acta Mathematica (German). 97: 227–266. doi:10.1007/BF02392399. 
  11. ^ Jaffee, Arthur (1977). "Review: N. N. Bogolubov, A. A. Logunov and I. T. Todorov, Introduction to axiomatic quantum field theory". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (3): 349–351. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1977-14261-4. 

Further readingRediger

External linksRediger



Repin og UkraineRediger

Repin var født i Ukraine, etnisk halvdelen ukrainsk, blev venner med den ukrainske patriots.

Født i CPUEeKharkiv oblast) i familien af militære paalanne-kalanta af Efim Repin. Som var overbevist om, at Elias selv, han kom fra en Kosak familie, bar navn af Roer, som efter plombere. Som et barn, Elias lærte en hel ladning af liv fattige sociale forhold af soldater pasyalan i det russiske Imperium, var kun lidt bedre fra den position af livegne. For næsten fire år har han arbejdet i ikon maleri artel bunakova, (V og genoprettede Kirke på Sloboda, således modtaget en elementær art uddannelse.

Men Ukraine Ilya Repin var forbundet ikke kun rødder, men pacatiana. Han var helt vild med ukrainske natur, menneske, folklore, og fremsat det problem stil i kunst. Venner Ilya Repin og tilhørte ukrainske embedsmænd: M. Kranc, N. Ant, D. Avanc, Eugene Chykalenko og mange andre. Mellem studerende blev N. Pimonenko, A. Ant, I. Makushenko F. Kruszka, S. Prokhorov, I. Shulga, F. Chuprina og andre. Som lærer og kritiker skrev bogen "Fjerne slægtninge" (1953). Efter revolutionen, Ilya Repin og ikke ønsker at leve i Sovjet-Rusland, og den forblev i hans ejendom "Penates" i Kuokkala (Finland), hvor han døde. I 1982 Penaty restaureret og åbnet som Museum-ejendom af I. Y. Repin".

Oprettet talrige portrætter af personligheder, ukrainsk kultur: Lubskoe S., M. Ant (1877), V. Tarnovskaya (1880, "Getman") og S. Tarnowski Shevchenko (1888) Bagali Dmitry Ivanovich. Bagali (1906) fire skitser af monument for Shevchenko i Kyiv om 1910 — 14). Gjorde illustrationer til værker af N. Gogol "Taras Bulba" og "Sorochinskaya fair" (1872 — 82), bøger Dmitry Avanc. Avaria "Zaporozhye i den hviler på olden tid og legender af mennesker" (1887), samt tegninger af de attraktioner af den ukrainske arkitektur, ukrainske folk stilarter og lignende.

RPN skrev Patriotiske billeder, og billeder, der er dedikeret til Ukraine, såsom: "Ukrainske nær hegnet" (1876), "Kosakkerne at skrive brev til den tyrkiske Sultan" (1880-91, en mulighed i St. Petersborg (russisk Museum), den anden — på Kharkov Statens Museum for kunst); "Vechornytsi" (1881), "Gajdamaki" (1902), "Black wolnica" (1903), "Hopak" (1930, fuldføre), "En undersøgelse af den akademiske kunstnerens model", "Solokha og diakon".

<galleri bredde="100px" heights="100px" perrow="4">

billede:Repin Cossacks.jpg|"Kosakkerne at skrive brev til den tyrkiske Sultan" (1880) billede:Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin 001.jpg|"Forsamlinger", 1881 billede:Ilya Repin og Uventet visitors.jpg|"uventet", 18841888 billede:1877Деревня Mokhnachi nær Чугуева.JPG|Selo Mohnach om CPUE", 1877


Repin var medlem af juryen Kommission, hvis formål var oprettelsen af T. Shevchenko ' s monument til 100-året for fødslen af digter og kunstner. Ligesom nogle af de andre ukrainske kunstnere, Repin kom fra juryen, fordi han var utilfreds med det endelige valg af Kommissionen. Ilya Efimovich kaldet Shevchenko "Apostel for frihed", og personligt er foretaget flere skitser til projektet af monumentet. K. V. Razvadovsky havde til hensigt at oprette et kort, og pengene fra salget af dem til at lede opførelsen af monumentet. For denne Repin malet aquarelle "Prometheus" fra Shevchenko digt "Kaukasus". Repin var en af grundlæggerne af Eu til beskyttelse af monumenter, Osv. Shevchenko, hvis Pagten ikke var godkendt af myndighederne.

Hjalp Udvalg i Union of fine arts. V. Vereshchagin i Mykolayiv, var et respekteret medlem af Kiev litterære og kunstneriske Union, Kiev Union af antikken og kunst.

44-57 millioner (anslået)
Områder med store befolkninger
  Ukraine: 36,5. mln millioner
Sprog Ukrainsk
Relaterede etniske grupper
Andre slaviske folkeslag, specielt østslavere (hviderussere, rusinere)

Ukrainere (ukrainsk: українці, tr. ukraіntsi, historisk kaldet rutenere) er en Østslavisk etnisk gruppe på omkring 45 millioner mennesker, der primært taler ukrainsk, men også russisk. Ukrainere er hovedsageligt bosat i Ukraine (37 mio), men også i Rusland (4 mio), Canada (1 million), Brasilien (970.000), US (890.000), Kasakhstan (550.000), Moldova (375.000), Argentina (305.000), Hviderusland (248.000), Tyskland (128.100) samt flere lande.

Kort fra 1920 over ukrainernes daværende bosætningsområde i Østeuropa. Kortet viser områder hvor ukrainsktalende da udgjorde majoriteten.
@Yasnodark: "famouse people is very most aspect of folk article", not in my culture and even not on da wiki. You might have an other oppinion, maybe from the common decissions on other language wikipedias, but here we generally have one important pictures in the infobox, not pictures of 30 more or less wellknown people. The choice of people wil without doubt be {{POV}}, and a picture of a person, whos name are spelled wrong, don't inform much about the people. In the infobox we try to put all serious informations. You can look in Kategori:Folkeslag i Baltikum, Estere, there is one picture in the infobox (good or bad), but at the same time a long list of where estonians lives, sadly without sources, but this is how a wikipedia is.
45 millioner (anslået)[1][2]
Områder med store befolkninger
  Ukraine: 37.541.693[3]

::::::And for Danskere - 21 person. And Ukraine is 12 times more than Danmark.--Yasnodark (diskussion) 15. jun 2016, 17:28 (CEST)

Ukrainere (ukrainsk: українці, tr. ukraіntsi, historisk kaldet

If you don't come with more serious arguments, I will delete the pictures and insert where ukrainians lives, with references, in the infobox.
Photo collage of famous people really says a lot about who is this folk. people resettlement places - is also very important aspect will be very if you add this information, but any reader will lose interest in the information in the article, if you do not understand about what people are talking about. In addition, it will encourage Danish Wikipedians even used to write articles about the most famous Ukrainians - because today your Wikipedia section is not very well developed in this regard. How, by the way, and with respect to galleries in the infobox. Although there is an exception: for example Englændere. Please don`t delate fotogallery: it helps create a holistic view of people.

It isn`t new for wikipedia, It is traditional aspect for folk articles in many wikilanguages:pl:Polacy , fr:Basques , el:Έλληνες , be:Беларусы , pt:Portugueses , is:Íslendingar , sr:Срби , bs:Bošnjaci , af:Duitsers , cs:Arméni, mk:Македонци , nn:Nordmenn , fi:Albaanit , tt:Татарлар , nl:Nederlanders , ce:Эрмалой , az:Azərbaycanlılar , zh:汉族 , ar:عرب , ta:தமிழர் , xx: , es:Pueblo español , fa:ایرانیان فارسی‌زبان , ar:عرب , sco:Italians , ja:日本人 , zh-yue:京族 , kk:Қазақтар , uk:Українці , ko:한민족 , hi:यहूदी , bn:বাঙালি জাতি , ur:پنجابی لوگ , and many others. Kategori:Slavere Kategori:Ukrainere


  1. ^ "People groups: Ukrainian". Joshua Project (engelsk). Hentet 14. juni 2016. 
  2. ^ Vic Satzewich (2003). The Ukrainian Diaspora (engelsk). Routledge. s. 19. ISBN 978-1-134-43495-4. Hentet 14. juni 2016. 
  3. ^ "Befolkningstal og sammensætningen: folketælling 2001". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine (ukrainsk). 5. december 2001. Arkiveret fra originalen 6. juli 2007. Hentet 14. juni 2016.