Liste over nobelpriser kemi redigér

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (svensk: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1901, van 't Hoff received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the prize was awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien, who shared the prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than 1 million, or US$1.4 million).[4] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

At least 25 laureates have received the Nobel Prize for contributions in the field of organic chemistry, more than any other field of chemistry.[6] Two winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were not allowed by their government to accept the prize. They would later receive a medal and diploma, but not the money. Frederick Sanger is the only laureate to win the prize twice, in 1958 and 1980. Two others also won Nobel Prizes in other subjects: Marie Curie (physics in 1903, chemistry in 1911) and Linus Carl Pauling (chemistry in 1954, peace in 1962).[7] Four women have won the prize: Marie Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie (1935), Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1964), and Ada E. Yonath (2009).[8] As of 2009, the prize has been awarded to 156 individuals. There have been eight years in which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was not awarded.

Laureates redigér

År Laureate[A] Land[B] Begrundelse[C]
1901   Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff the Holland "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[9]
1902   Hermann Emil Fischer Tyskland "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[10]
1903 Fil:Arrhenius2.jpg? Svante August Arrhenius Sverige "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[11]
1904   Sir William Ramsay England "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[12]
1905   Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Tyskland "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[13]
1906   Henri Moissan Frankrig "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[14]
1907   Eduard Buchner Tyskland "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[15]
1908   Ernest Rutherford England
New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[16]
1909   Wilhelm Ostwald Tyskland "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[17]
1910   Otto Wallach Tyskland "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[18]
1911   Marie Curie, née Sklodowska Polen "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[19]
1912   Victor Grignard Frankrig "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[20]
Fil:Sabatier.jpg? Paul Sabatier Frankrig "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[20]
1913   Alfred Werner Schweiz "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[21]
1914   Theodore William Richards USA "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[22]
1915   Richard Martin Willstätter Tyskland "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[23]
1916 Not awarded
1917 Not awarded
1918   Fritz Haber Tyskland "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[24]
1919 Not awarded
1920   Walther Hermann Nernst Tyskland "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[25]
1921 Frederick Soddy England "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[26]
1922 Francis William Aston England "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[27]
1923   Fritz Pregl Østrig "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[28]
1924 Not awarded
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Tyskland / Ungarn "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[29]
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg Sverige "for his work on disperse systems"[30]
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Tyskland "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[31]
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Tyskland "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[32]
1929 Arthur Harden England "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[33]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Tyskland
1930 Hans Fischer Tyskland "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[34]
1931 Carl Bosch Tyskland "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[35]
Friedrich Bergius Tyskland
1932   Irving Langmuir USA "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[36]
1933 Not awarded
1934   Harold Clayton Urey USA "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[37]
1935 Frédéric Joliot Frankrig "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[38]
Irene Joliot-Curie Frankrig
1936   Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye Holland "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[39]
1937 Walter Norman Haworth England "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[40]
Paul Karrer Schweiz "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn Tyskland "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[41]
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Tyskland "for his work on sex hormones"[42]
Leopold Ruzicka Schweiz "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[42]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943   George de Hevesy Ungarn "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[43]
1944 Otto Hahn Tyskland "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[44]
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[45]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner USA "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[46]
John Howard Northrop USA "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[47]
Wendell Meredith Stanley USA
1947 Sir Robert Robinson England "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[48]
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sverige "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[49]
1949 William Francis Giauque USA "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[50]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Vesttyskland "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[51]
Kurt Alder Vesttyskland
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan USA "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[52]
Glenn Theodore Seaborg USA
1952 Archer John Porter Martin England "for their invention of partition chromatography"[53]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge England
1953 Hermann Staudinger Vesttyskland "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[54]
1954   Linus Carl Pauling USA "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[55]
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud USA "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[56]
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood England "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[57]
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov USSR
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd England "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[58]
1958   Frederick Sanger England "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[59]
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Tjekkoslovakiet "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[60]
1960 Willard Frank Libby USA "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[61]
1961   Melvin Calvin USA "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[62]
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz England "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[63]
  John Cowdery Kendrew England
1963 Karl Ziegler Vesttyskland "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[64]
Giulio Natta Italien
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin England "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[65]
1965 Robert Burns Woodward USA "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[66]
1966 Robert S. Mulliken USA "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[67]
1967 Manfred Eigen Vesttyskland "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[68]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish England
George Porter England
1968 Lars Onsager USA "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[69]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton England "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[70]
Odd Hassel Norge
1970   Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[71]
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[72]
1972   Christian B. Anfinsen USA "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[73]
Stanford Moore USA "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[73]
William H. Stein USA
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Vesttyskland "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[74]
Geoffrey Wilkinson England
1974 Paul J. Flory USA "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[75]
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australien
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[76]
Vladimir Prelog Schweiz "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[76]
1976 William N. Lipscomb USA "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[77]
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgien "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[78]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell England "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[79]
1979 Herbert C. Brown USA "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[80]
Georg Wittig Vesttyskland
1980   Paul Berg USA "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[81]
  Walter Gilbert USA "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[81]
  Frederick Sanger England
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[82]
Roald Hoffmann USA
1982 Aaron Klug England "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[83]
1983 Henry Taube USA "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[84]
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield USA "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[85]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman USA "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[86]
Jerome Karle USA
1986   Dudley R. Herschbach USA "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[87]
Yuan T. Lee USA
John C. Polanyi Canada / Ungarn
1987 Donald J. Cram USA "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[88]
  Jean-Marie Lehn Frankrig
Charles J. Pedersen USA
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Vesttyskland "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[89]
  Robert Huber Vesttyskland
Hartmut Michel Vesttyskland
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[90]
  Thomas R. Cech USA
1990 Elias James Corey USA "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[91]
1991 Richard R. Ernst Schweiz "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[92]
1992   Rudolph A. Marcus USA "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[93]
1993 Kary B. Mullis USA "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"[94]
Michael Smith Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[94]
1994 George A. Olah USA / Ungarn "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[95]
1995 Paul J. Crutzen Holland "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[96]
Mario J. Molina USA
  F. Sherwood Rowland USA
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. USA "for their discovery of fullerenes"[97]
  Sir Harold W. Kroto England
Richard E. Smalley USA
1997 Paul D. Boyer USA "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[98]
John E. Walker England
Jens C. Skou Danmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[98]
1998   Walter Kohn USA "for his development of the density-functional theory"[99]
John A. Pople England "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[99]
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypten
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[100]
2000 Alan J. Heeger USA "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[101]
Alan G MacDiarmid USA
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles USA "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[102]
  Ryoji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless USA "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[103]
2002   John B. Fenn USA "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[104]
Koichi Tanaka Japan
  Kurt Wüthrich Schweiz "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[104]
2003 Peter Agre USA "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[105]
  Roderick MacKinnon USA "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[105]
2004   Aaron Ciechanover Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[106]
  Avram Hershko Israel
  Irwin Rose USA
2005 Yves Chauvin Frankrig "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[107]
  Robert H. Grubbs USA
Richard R. Schrock USA
2006   Roger D. Kornberg USA "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[108]
2007   Gerhard Ertl Vesttyskland "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[109]
2008   Osamu Shimomura USA[110] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[111]
  Martin Chalfie USA
  Roger Y. Tsien USA
2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan India, England "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[112]
Thomas A. Steitz USA
Ada E. Yonath Israel

See also redigér

References and notes redigér

  • "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  • "Nobel Prize winners by category (chemistry)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Hentet 2008-10-06.
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  6. ^ Malmström, Bo G.; Bertil Andersson (2001-12-03). "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The Development of Modern Chemistry". Hentet 2008-10-08.{{cite web}}: CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  8. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Hentet 2008-10-07.
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  11. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  17. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  20. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  27. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  32. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  40. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  42. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  43. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  46. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  49. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  51. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  52. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  54. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  56. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  57. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  58. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  59. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  60. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  61. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  62. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  63. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  64. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  66. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  68. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  70. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  72. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  73. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  74. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  75. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  76. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  77. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  78. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  79. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  80. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  81. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  82. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  83. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  84. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  85. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  86. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  87. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  88. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  89. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  90. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  91. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  92. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  93. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  94. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  95. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  96. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  97. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  98. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  99. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  100. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  101. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  102. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  103. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  104. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  105. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  107. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  108. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  109. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007". Hentet 2008-10-06.
  110. ^ As of 26 October 2008, the website page for the 2008 award gives Shimomura's country as "USA". However, the press release from the Nobel Foundation on 8 October 2008, announcing the award, states that Shimomura is a Japanese citizen. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008–Press Release". 2008-10-08. Hentet 2008-10-08.
  111. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008". Hentet 2008-10-08.
  112. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009". Hentet 2009-10-07.

A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel Laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel Laureate at

B. The information in the country column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of chemistry for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel Laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

External links redigér